Fungal Biotechnology

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ARTICLE IN PRESS
Food Research International xxx (2009) xxx–xxx

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Food Research International
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/foodres

Review

Fungal biotechnology in food and feed processing
Shakuntala Ghorai, Samudra Prosad Banik, Deepak Verma, Sudeshna Chowdhury, Soumya Mukherjee, Suman Khowala *
Drug Development and Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology (Unit of CSIR, Govt. of India), 4, Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, India

article

info

Article history:
Received 25 November 2008
Accepted 22 February 2009
Available online xxxx
Keywords:
Fruiting body
Fungal biotechnology
Fungal enzymes
Bioprocessing of food
Fermentation
Mushroom
Termitomyces clypeatus
Secondary metabolites

abstract
Fungi are of excellent value nutritionally, and of great importance to vegetarians. Edible mushrooms are excellent sources of protein, have low-fat content and are free of cholesterol. They are easily cultivable and are consumed either in fresh or processed form. Yeasts and filamentous fungi secrete a plethora of important enzymes in the growth medium together with other secondary metabolites. Most of these are hydrolytic in nature being employed in different food processing industries as well as in refinement of fodder quality. Edible filamentous fungi producing these enzymes present an added advantage for their use in food and feed. In this article these aspects will be discussed along with the results from edible mushroom Termitomyces clypeatus, producing a wide variety of hydrolytic enzymes and products, from our laboratory. It is likely that the functional understanding of different enzyme classes will provide new applications within the food industry in the future.

Ó 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Contents
1.
2.
3.
4.

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use of fungi in dietary food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use of fruiting body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fungi as and in processed food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.

SCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.

Baker’s yeast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.

Use of yeast cells in food and fodder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.

Processed fungal food as an alternative to SCPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.

Use in fermentation based food industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.

Production of alcoholic beverages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.

Production...
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