Hydrolysis of Macromolecules

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Title: Hydrolysis of macromolecules

This lab was designed to teach the process of “hydrolysis”, a chemical reaction in which water is added to a polymer, breaking its bonds and forming smaller molecules. A hydrogen cation and a hydroxide anion (which once formed water) break apart and attach themselves to the ends of shorter polymers. Hydrolysis plays an important role in our lives and in the lives of every living thing on earth. Living organisms rely on digestion (hydrolysis) to convert food energy from polymers into monomers, which are easier for our cells to absorb. This study was conducted to show how polysaccharides are broken down by organisms to absorb nutrients through hydrolysis. We used different methods to show how different tests involving heat, acid, saliva, and bacteria can hydrolyze polysaccharides and proteins. Through this experiment we have found that heat and acid hydrolyze starch while using the Benedicts test. Using the same test in a different manner showed how saliva has a big effect on the breakdown of polysaccharides. Using the IKI test we noticed bacteria like B.Cereus are able to digest starch polysaccharides, where as E.Coli does not, and also the effect of bacterial protein on digestion. Bacterial proteins such as S. Marcescens hydrolyze most polysaccharides whereas E. Coli have shown no effect on hydrolyzing polysaccharides. This lab will demonstrate a variety of treatments and conditions that have capability to hydrolyze polysaccharides.

How do cows digest plant materials? How does a potato plant use its stored starch to make new leaves in spring? In this lab we tested the different techniques used in the digestion process to determine how macromolecules hydrolyze. This process is the reverse of a dehydration reaction, where polymers are disassembled into very small subunits that can pass through the cell membrane. Without hydrolysis, the proteins; polysaccharides and macromolecules, won't be able to pass through the cell. In this lab we will analyze different methods to test which polysaccharides and proteins were hydrolyzed. We will use the IKI and Benedict's test on polysaccharides and proteins in different conditions which will allow us to simulate different digestion processes of starch and protein. Key terms:

What are carbohydrates? They are the best source of energy for the body. Their base is sugar and made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. The general formulation is (CH2O)n, which means they contain one molecule of water for each carbon. Carbohydrates include: Monosaccharide (simple sugar), Disaccharide (2 sugar joined by covalent bond and dehydration reaction), and polysaccharide. What are Polysaccharides? They are chains (polymer) of monosaccharides that are joined by glycosidic linkages. Polysaccharides two main functions are: storage material, and as a structural material in body. What is hydrolysis reaction? It is the reverse of dehydration reaction, which means two monomers, are broken down by a water molecule. Digestion is an actual example of hydrolysis in the body. Starch is a polysaccharide; a form of storage material, which is a polymer of Glucose monomers joined by1-4 glycosidic linkages. STARCH DIGESTION IN OUR BODY: Our body is not able to use starch, so the digestion process performs hydrolysis turning starch to glucose. Starch, after some processing in the mouth, stomach, and pancreas, changes to glucose and then goes through the small intestine; this helps single glucose monomers pass into the bloodstream, until it can finally be used by the body as energy. Benedict’s test: is the method that we are using for reducing sugars (Monosaccharides). The Benedict’s regent is Cupric copper ions which is light blue, when it's combined and heated to boiling with a compound containing glucose, Cu2+ is reduced to Cu+, and then it’s going to change to Cu2O, which has a brownish-orange color, and its insoluble in water and will...
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