General Introduction to Mushroom Culture
WITHOUT LEAVES, WITHOUT BUDS, WITHOUT FLOWERS:
YET THEY FORM FRUIT.
AS A MEDICINE, AS A FOOD, AS A TONIC:
THE ENTIRE CREATION IS PRECIOUS.
• Cultivation of mushrooms as a research endeavor in Pakistan
• Only Institute of Horticultural Sciences, a degree program:
• Mushroom Science
• Common in Asian countries, in Horticulture departments.
Mushrooms may be unpalatable, and others even poisonous, the mushrooms of many species are not only edible but delicious and nutritious.
• Consumption of mushroom probably occurred during prehistory, in hunting and foraging period.
• Unlike plants could not be cultivated at first and was be collected a long period of Time.
• Even today, relatively few species of mushrooms can be cultivated.
← Cultivation of mushrooms in Western
cultures first recorded in 1650.
← Agaricus bisporus was first species
cultivated, on compost.
← In Asia, specifically China and Japan, it is
not known when cultivation began.
← Several species of mushrooms cultivated, on wood.
← Research work on mushroom cultivation was first initiated in Pakistan in 1975 in collaboration with the US Department of Agriculture in the Department of Horticulture,
WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS
Truffles Black morels
Important Wild Edible mushrooms in Pakistan
• Black morels, Morchella species
• Khumbi, Podaxis pistillaris
• Khappa, Phellorina inquinanse
• Khamiri, Agaricus bitorquis
Black morels, Morchella species
Appears in Northern Areas after snow melts. 60-70 tons of morels exported annually.
Khamiri, Agaricus bitorquis
Wild edible mushrooms of Baluchistan, used for eating by local inhabitants.
Popular edible mushrooms
Khumbi and Khappa
Important Cultivated Mushrooms
• Button mushroom, Agaricus species
• Oyster, Pleurotus species
• Shiitake, Lentinus edodes
• Straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea
• Wood’ear, Auricularia species
• Winter mushroom, Flammulina velutipes
• It is not land dependant as it is grown indoor.
• Medicinal and nutritional value
• Grown on waste materials
• Can be developed as cottage industry
• Source of income
• Export potential
Before becoming involved consider the following questions
• How do mushrooms grow?
• What is the mushrooms industry?
• Why grow mushrooms?
• What knowledge and training are necessary?
• What problems may be consider in growing and marketing.
• Where can you get for further information?
How do mushrooms grow?
• In nature Mushrooms appear infrequently. Fungi which can produce mushrooms do so only when nutritional and environmental conditions are right.
• Mushroom cultivation requires firstly the preparation of substrates and secondly management of growing environments.
Worldwide mushroom production status
• Mushroom production has enjoyed a steady gain over the last two decades (Fig). World output has increased from 2,182,000 metric tons in 1986 to 6,158,000 in 1997 and to an estimated 12,227,249 metric tons in 2003. This corresponds to an increase of 460.4% or 27.1% per year.
Why grow mushrooms?
• To provide full-time occupation and primary source of income.
• As a part-time occupation & secondary income.
• To utilize existing facilities such as building or stores not currently in use.
efficiency in a complemantary business.
• To utilize more fully existing marketing and distribution systems.
• For life-cycle change, perhaps to...
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