Experimental Design: In order to design an experiment to measure free-fall acceleration, the researcher must construct a wooden tower with height 10 meters along with a trap door system to release a tennis ball from rest position. In this case, the researcher must measure the time the ball takes to free-fall from rest position to the ground. Using this info and the formula:

s=vit+ 12at2
s = 10 m
vi = 0 m/s

The researcher will find the time of fall and calculate the acceleration due to gravity. In this case with displacement being 10 meters, the expected time would be around1.4 s. Any differing results can be attributed to human error of timing as well as to air resistance (minimal).

Hypothesis: If the acceleration due to gravity is measured on Earth, Moon, and Mars, then the results will be different due to the fact that each planet and satellite has a different gravitational attraction since each has a different mass. The researcher believes that each of the values will differ with the largest acceleration being Earth and the smallest acceleration being the Moon. The researcher also predicts that their results will be comparable to given standards however error and uncontrollable factors including air resistance will alter results slightly.

...FreeFallLab
Natalie Soria
Lab Partners:
Ryan Michaely
Iqra Haji
Yan Huang
1. Purpose:
The purpose of this experiment is to determine the acceleration due to gravity by observing the motion of a free falling object.
2. Equipment Used:
A. Timer Switch
B. Time-of-Flight Accessory
C. Control Box
D. AC adapter
E. Drop Box
F. Steel ball
G. Solid gold ball
H. Big plastic ball
3. Method Used:
1) Place the steel ball on the drop box.
2) Set the timer to “Time: Two Gates” mode.
3) Measure the distance between the bottom of the ball and the plate and record in table
4) Release the ball using the timer switch and record the time it takes to fall.
5) Change the distance and repeat step (4) until table is complete
6) Repeat steps (3) – (5) with solid golf ball
7) Repeat steps (3) – (5) with big plastic ball
4. Diagram:
Time-Of-Flight
Accessory
Time-Of-Flight
Accessory
Timer Switch
Timer Switch
Timer
Timer
DROPBOX
DROPBOX
5. Data:
STEEL BALL
Table 1: Determining the acceleration of the steel ball dropped
Distance (M) | Time(S) | Time(S2) |
0.80m | 0.4074s | 0.166s2 |
0.75m | 0.3969s | 0.1575s2 |
0.70m | 0.3809s | 0.1451s2 |
0.65m | 0.3692s | 0.1363s2 |
0.60m | 0.3546s | 0.1257s2 |
0.55m | 0.3438s | 0.1182s2 |
SOLID GOLF BALL
Table 2:...

...and divide that with 9.82 (the average acceleration). After you take that result and multiply by 100.
0.10/9.82= 0.01018
0.01018 X 100 = 1.018 %
Graphs:
On next page.
Preliminary questions:
1. The additional information I need to determine the average speed of the Picket Fence as it moves through the Photogate is the amount of time need to go through it.
2. If an object is moving with constant acceleration, the shape of its velocity vs. time graph is a linear line.
3. The initial velocity of an object does not have anything to do with its acceleration due to gravity.
Analysis Questions:
1. The minimum, maximum, and average values for acceleration are in the data table.
2. The shape of the position vs. time graph for freefall would be a parabola because the velocity increases.
3. The shape of the velocity vs. time graph is a linear line. It is not a parabolic shape like that of the position vs. time graph because the acceleration is constant which means a straight line of the velocity vs. time graph.
4. Results in table
5. Percentages in the data tables.
6. The accepted value for g (gravity) is 9.8 m/s/s, and all the calculated accelerations from the first six runs are within.
7. Prediction for acceleration vs. time graph in graphs.
8. The average acceleration is the same with the acceleration vs. time graph because the slopes are 0.
Extensions:
1. G (acceleration) is determined in the data charts above.
2. Dropping...

...Sample Formal Laboratory Report for Physics on the Picket Fence Lab (CP) without the parachute
Purpose:
The purpose of this experiment is to verify the acceleration due to gravity using the picket fence with a photogate, LabPro and LoggerPro software by measuring it with a precision of 0.5% or better.
Theory:
All objects, regardless of mass, fall with the same acceleration due to gravity assuming that there is no air resistance. Objects thrown upward or downward and those released from rest are falling freely once they are released. Any freely falling object experiences acceleration directed downward, regardless of the direction of its motion at any instant. The symbol “g” is used for this special acceleration at the Earth’s surface. The value of g is approximately 9.8 m/sec2. Since we are neglecting air friction and assuming that the freefall acceleration is constant, the motion of a freely falling object is equivalent to motion in one dimension under constant acceleration. Therefore the constant acceleration equations can be applied. Objects falling downward only under the influence of gravity can be graphically analyzed with a displacement versus time graph shown by a parabolic curve described in graph 1. This graph shows that as the object is falling, the displacement it travels each second is greater than the prior second. This graph can be mathematically illustrated by the equation
which...

...fFree-Fall Acceleration Laboratory LAB REPORT
This is an EXAMPLE of this assignment and what is expected.- DO NOT COPY the information on this example. The information on here is not the correct answers. You will get no credit for copying.
1. Design an Experiment 5 points
I would use three different objects. My objects would be different shapes, difference sizes and difference masses.
I would measure the time it took them to fall form a balcony to the ground.
I would expect the biggest and the one with most mass to fall to the ground first.
If the results were different then I would need to go back to my textbook and re-read the information about this topic.
2. Developing Hypotheses. 4 points (at least 2 hypotheses)
The Earth, Moon and Mars have different atmospheres and things might fall a little differently.
Hypothesis.
If the atmosphere was thick then the objects would take longer to fall. The objects would have a harder time falling through the packed molecules in the atmosphere
I think the moon has a different gravity from Earth, I think it is more gravity.
Hypothesis.
If the gravity of the moon is more then the object will fall slower in the moon
Data 30 points
EARTH
Time (s) | 0 | 0.2 | 0.4 | 0.6 | 0.8 | 1.0 |
Distance (m) | 0 | 0.35 | 0.97 |...

...Julie Kim
FreeFallLab
Purpose:
to use collected data and the kinematics equations to determine the value of local gravity
Data:
height 161 cm(1 m/100 cm) = 1.61 m
mass of small ball 16.5 g
mass of big ball 28.0 g
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Average
Small 0.585
sec 0.571
sec 0.567
sec 0.571
sec 0.571
sec 0.572
sec 0.571
sec 0.574
sec 0.576
sec 0.571
sec 0.573
sec
Big 0.573
sec 0.568
sec 0.569
sec 0.569
sec 0.570
sec 0.569
sec 0.571
sec 0.563
sec 0.571
sec 0.570
sec 0.569
sec
Analysis of Data:
1. Determine the average time of each set of ten drops.
See data table.
2. Use the average time, height and kinematics equations to determine local gravity.
Small Ball: ∆y = vit+(1/2)at2
1.61 = (0*0.573)+(1/2)a(0.5732)
a = 9.81 m/s2
Big Ball: ∆y = vit+(1/2)at2
1.61 = (0*0.569)+(1/2)a(0.5692)
a = 9.95 m/s2
3. Calculate the percent error between each calculated local gravity and the accepted value of
gravity, 9.8 m/s2.
Small Ball: [(9.81–9.8)/9.8]*100 = 0.10%
Big Ball: [(9.95-9.8)/9.8]*100 = 1.53%
4. How do the drop times compare between the two different sized balls? Is this consistent with
the concepts learned in class? Explain.
The drop times between the two different sized balls are very similar. The difference
between the two averages is only 0.004 seconds. This is consistent with the concepts
learned in class; we learned that all objects...

...Lab {4} FreeFall Motion
Abstract
Within this laboratory students used a Macintosh computer, scientificwork interface, and photogate to measure the acceleration of gravity, g, in a free-fall experiment. Using a “picket fence” dropped through a photo gate with disregard for air resistance; students calculated the results from the charted data and compared it with the accepted value of 9.8 m/s2 discussing any variations and their potential causes.
Goal
The goal of this experiment is to measure g, the acceleration of gravity, using various software and a picket fence.
Theory
Everything , regardless of mass, fall with the same acceleration due to gravity assuming that there is no air resistance. Items thrown upward or downward and those released from rest are falling freely once they are released. Any freely falling items experience an acceleration directed downward, regardless of the direction of its motion at any instant. Using the symbol g for this special acceleration, this value decreases with increasing elevation. At the Earth’s surface the value of g is approximately 9.8 m/sec2. Since students are disregarding air friction and assuming that the freefall acceleration does not vary with altitude over short vertical distances, the motion of a...

...In Newtonian physics, freefall is any motion of a body where its weight is the only force acting upon it. In the context of general relativity, where gravitation is reduced to a space-time curvature, a body in freefall has no force acting on it and it moves along a geodesic. The present article only concerns itself with freefall in the Newtonian domain.
An object in the technical sense offreefall may not necessarily be falling down in the usual sense of the term. An object moving upwards would not normally be considered to be falling, but if it is subject to the force of gravity only, it is said to be in freefall. The moon is thus in freefall.
In a uniform gravitational field, in the absence of any other forces, gravitation acts on each part of the body equally and this is weightlessness, a condition that also occurs when the gravitational field is zero (such as when far away from any gravitating body). A body in freefall experiences "0-g".
The term "freefall" is often used more loosely than in the strict sense defined above. Thus, falling through an atmosphere without a deployed parachute, or lifting device, is also often referred to as freefall. The aerodynamic drag forces in such situations prevent them...

...2/12/2013
Lab 1430
FreeFall
The difference of the outline procedure and the actual procedure is the use of the brass screw was not working in our set up. So we had to improvise and use our hand as the release mechanism as what we had seen this didn’t make difference from others results.
Drop Distance 50(cm)
Drop
Time(sec)
1
.306179
2
.310800
3
.304614
4
.311203
5
.298986
Drop Distance 100(cm)
Drop
Time(sec)
1
.419258
2
.417368
3
.420589
4
.416400
5
.430646
Drop Distance 150(cm)
Drop
Time(sec)
1
.516188
2
.504206
3
.495936
4
.515523
5
.502310
Drop Distance 200(cm)
Drop
Time (sec)
1
.623696
2
.616600
3
.618880
4
.628058
5
.602976
H(m)
.093756
.5
.177116
1
.256879
1.5
.38183
2
Stander Deviation
H(m)
Deviation
.5
.3063564
1
.4208522
1.5
.5068326
2
.618042
Equation Used
Percentage Error = (Abs(measured value-calculated value)/calculate value)*100%
What we can see from the results and the theory of the idea of the ball dropping is that the time it takes form 1 meter and 2 meters aren’t twice as large. What we can see is that it is an exponential increase in a small amount. In theory this is proven that the time is not double just because the distance is double. And that the acceleration without air resistance will always be constant -9.81 m/s squared
In question number 2 by ignoring air resistance would this tend to cause the measures value of g in this experiment to be larger or smaller. This question may be miss leading...

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