Formal vs. Informal Education

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Individual differences: Learning styles, learning strategies and motivation

Are you a good language learner?
• 1. Do you try to use words you have recently learnt? • 2. Do you answer the teacher’s question silently in yourself when he/she calls on another person? • 3. Do you succeed in finding out unknown words/expressions while reading or listening?. • 4. Are you willing to talk in English at a reception where there are a lot of foreigners? • 5. Do you correct other students’ mistakes in yourself? • 6. When talking in English what is more important for you: that you should be understood or that what you say does not contain an error?

The good language learner
• • • • attention to form: GLLs regard the L2 as a system and make conscious efforts to analyze its rules; attention to meaning: GLLs are able to pay attention to meaning and form at the same time; active involvement in learning: awareness of the learning process: GLLs are conscious of their learning methods, strategies and styles; flexible and appropriate use of learning strategies: GLLs use the appropriate strategies in different situations and are able to modify their strategies in response to the learning situation.

Learning strategies: Definitions
• "Learning strategies are techniques, approaches or deliberate actions that students take in order to facilitate the learning, recall of both linguistic and content area information" (Chamot, 1987). • Language learning strategies are behaviours or actions which learners use to make language learning more successful, self-directed and enjoyable" (Oxford, 1989).



Learning strategies: Characteristics
• • • • Strategies include general approaches and specific actions or techniques used to learn L2. Strategies are problem-oriented. Strategies are used consciously. Strategies can be linguistic (e.g. asking for an unknown word) and non-linguistic (e.g. miming an unknown verb). Linguistic strategies can be expressed in L1 and in L2. Some strategies are observable, some not. Strategies contribute to learning. Strategy use varies in different types of tasks and is influenced by individual preferences.

Learning strategies: Taxonomies
O'Malley and Chamot's (1990) taxonomy • 3 majors groups of strategies are distinguished: • Cognitive strategies "operate directly on incoming information, manipulating it in ways that enhance learning" • Metacognitive strategies are "higher order executive skills that may entail planning for, monitoring, or evaluating the success of learning activity" • Social/affective strategies "involve either interaction with another person or ideational control over affect"

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Oxford’s taxonomy 1. Direct strategies Memory strategies e.g. Memorising a word by repeating it several times e.g. Deducting the meaning of a word from its context e.g. Using a similar word to the one that is not known by the learner

Oxford’s taxonomy 2. Indirect strategies Metacognitive strategies Planning the learning activity Affective strategies Rewarding oneself for the successful completion of an activity Seeking opportunities to converse with native speakers

Cognitive strategies

Compensation strategies

Social strategies

What strategies do you use
• When you have to learn a new word? • When you do not know a meaning of a word in a written text? • To make learning more enjoyable?

Learning strategy training
• There are a number of learning strategy training programmes, and learning strategies are included in modern course-books as well. • The success of learning strategy training, however, has been investigated in a few studies, which produced mixed results. • It seems that learning strategy training is most useful in vocabulary learning. • The success of training was found to depend on proficiency and learning styles.

Motivation: Definition and components
-why do certain people choose a particular action, how much effort are they willing to put into the action, and how...
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