controlling performance Notice that most of these activities are very task-oriented, rather than people-oriented.This is very like.Fayol laid down the following principles of organization (he called them principles of management):1. Specialization of labor
. Specializing encourages continuous improvement inskills and the development of improvements in methods.2. Authority
. The right to give orders and the power to exact obedience.3. Discipline
. No slacking, bending of rules.4.
Unity of command
. Each employee has one and only one boss.5.
Unity of direction
. A single mind generates a single plan and all play their part inthat plan.6. Subordination of Individual Interests
. When at work, only work things should be pursued or thought about.7. Remuneration
. Employees receive fair payment for services, not what thecompany can get away with.8. Centralization
. Consolidation of management functions. Decisions are madefrom the top.9. Scalar Chain (line of authority)
. Formal chain of command running from top to bottom of the organization, like military. Scalar Chain
is the number of differentlevels of authority through which decisions are passed in the organization. 10.
. All materials and personnel have a prescribed place, and they must remainthere.11. Equity
. Equality of treatment (but not necessarily identical treatment)12. Personnel Tenure
. Limited turnover of personnel. Lifetime employment for goodworkers.13. Initiative
. Thinking out a plan and do what it takes to make it happen.14. Esprit de corps
. Harmony, cohesion among personnel.Out of the 14, the most important elements are specialization, unity of command, scalar chain, and, coordination by managers (an amalgam of authority and unity of direction). [pic][pic]
Fayol (1841-1925) Functions and Principles of Management
Henri Fayol, a French engineer and director of mines, was little unknown outside Franceuntil the late 40s when Constance Storrs published her translation of Fayol's 1916“Administration Industrielle et Generale ".Fayol's career began as a mining engineer. He then moved into research geology and in1888 joined, Comambault as Director. Comambault was in difficulty but Fayol turned theoperation round. On retirement he published his work - a comprehensive theory of administration - described and classified administrative management roles and processesthen became recognized and referenced by others in the growing discourse aboutmanagement. He is frequently seen as a key, early contributor to a classical or administrative management school of thought (even though he himself would never haverecognized such a "school").His theorizing about administration was built on personal observation and experience of what worked well in terms of organization. His aspiration for an "administrative science"sought a consistent set of principles that all organizations must apply in order to run properly.F. W. Taylor published "The Principles of Scientific Management" in the USA in 1911,and Fayol in 1916 examined the nature of management and administration on the basis of his French mining organization experiences..Fayol synthesized various tenets or principles of organization and management andTaylor on work methods, measurement and simplification to secure efficiencies. Bothreferenced functional specialization.Both Fayol and Taylor were arguing that principles existed which all organizations - inorder to operate and be administered efficiently - could implement. This type of assertiontypifies a "one best way" approach to management thinking. Fayol's five functions arestill relevant to discussion today about management roles and action.1. to forecast and plan - purveyance
examine the future and draw up plans of action2.
build up the structure,...