The Farewell Pilgrimage (Hujjat al-wada’) was the last and only Hajj pilgrimage in which Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) participated in.
When peace and order had been restored throughout the Muslim realm and the period of warfare was over and the people joined Islam in multitude, till in the course of some two years, there was one and but one religion - Islam - throughout the vast Arabian peninsula with a few Jewish and Christian exceptions here and there. The cry of Allah-u-Akbar resounded on all sides. Now it took Muhammad but two brief years, not only to bring the whole of Arabia under the banner of Islam, but at the same time to work a mighty transformation, sweeping away all corruptions and uplifting the nation to the lifties height of spirituality.
Therefore, in the tenth year of Hijrah, the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) declared his attention to go for pilgrimage and though the other muslims started to prepare for their journey. Meanwhile, the news spread like wild fire outside Madinah, and the people gathered to Madinah with intention to go for the pilgrimage with Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him). Hordes of people flocked into the group through the way. It is reported that hundred and fourteen thousand followers joined Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) in the farewell pilgrimage.
The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) left Madinah on Saturday, 25 Dhu’l-Qa’dah after offering four rak’ahs for Zuhr. Before the prayer, in a sermon, he explained the essentials of putting on Ihram, the pilgrim dress, and the obligations and ‘sunan’ of the Pilgrimage.
The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) delivered his Farewell Sermon on the 9th Day - Arafah - of Dhul Hijjah, the 12th month of Islamic calender, in the Uranah valley of Arafat near Makkah. It was the occasion of the annual rites of Hajj (the pilgrimage) in the 10th year AH.
During this pilgrimage the Prophet (peace be upon him) showed the people how to perform the rituals of Hajj...