Factors affecting orientation and satisfaction of women entrepreneurs in rural India Jeevan Jyoti, Assistant Professor*, Jyoti Sharma, PhD Research Scholar and Anita Kumari, Research Scholar Department of Commerce, University of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India
In the present era, the women-owned businesses in the form of women entrepreneurs are one of the fastest growing entrepreneurial populations in the India. The objective of the paper is to study the factors that affect women entrepreneurial orientation and their satisfaction. In this regard, the paper explores the affecting variables and their impact on orientation and satisfaction. The proposed model and hypotheses were tested by using the data collected from boutiques, beauty parlors, carpet making units, and general stores in Jammu and Kashmir (India). Univariate, bi-variate, and multi-variate techniques were used for data analysis. In SEM, 13 paths were created for evaluating the cause and effect relationship between different factors viz., social, psychological, financial, push, pull factors, problems, and entrepreneurial orientation and satisfaction. Out of 13 paths eight relationships are significant while five relationships are insignificant in this structural equation. The key finding of the paper is that all factors affect orientation highly as compared to satisfaction. The implications of research findings for researchers and practitioners are discussed and the suggestions have also been provided. Keywords: women entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial orientation; satisfaction; rural India; psychological factors
Received: 25 February 2011; Revised: 4 May 2011; Accepted: 27 May 2011; Published: 12 July 2011
urality is viewed as a dynamic entrepreneurial resource that shapes both opportunities and constraints. Location, natural resources, and the landscape, social capital, rural governance, business and social networks, as well as information and communication technologies, exert dynamic and complex influences on entrepreneurial activity in rural areas (Stathopoulou, Demetrios, & Dimitris, 2004). Rural entrepreneurship is a key to economic development in many countries across the globe (OECD, 1998, 2003; UN 2004). It is one of the newest areas of research in the entrepreneurship field and has become one of the significant supportive factors for rural economic development and agribusiness. The status of women in India has long been paradoxical. They have had access to professions such as medicine, teaching, and politics and have the right to own property. Among some social classes, women are extremely powerful. Women have been taking increasing interest in recent years in income generating activities, selfemployment, and entrepreneurship. This is seen in respect of all kinds of women both in urban and rural areas
(Rajani, 2008). Women are taking up both traditional activities (knitting, pickle making, toy making, jam and jelly), and also non-traditional activities (like computer training, catering services, beauty parlor, gym. etc.). The economic, social, religious, cultural, and psychological factors affect origination and success of women entrepreneurs (Habib, Roni, & Haque, 2005). The reasons and motivations for starting business or economic activities by the rural women are enormous. The important reasons are earning money or attractive source of income, enjoying better life, availability of loans, favorable government policy, influence of success stories, personal satisfaction, desire to utilize own skill and talents, unfavorable present working environment, self-employment and employment of others, assurance of career and family security, fulfillment of creative urge of the borrowers’ experience in family business, self-confidence, non-ability to find suitable job or work, encouragement and advice of the family members, economic necessity, and so on (Afrin, Islam, & Ahmed 2008). The paper is organized into...