A layout is the physical configuration of departments, workstations, and equipments in the conversion process. it is arrangement of physical resources used to create the product. Success of operations depends on the physical layouts of the facilities. Flow of raw material. Productivity and human relationship are all affected by the arrangements of the conversion facilities. Plant layout involves: i) planning and arranging facilities in new plant ii) improvements in existing layout to introduce new methods.
Layout decisions have long term consequences on cost and companies ability to serve the customers. Major objectives of layout i) Providing enough production capacity ii) Reducing material handling costs iii) Easy supervisions iv) Improvement in productivity v) Efficient utilisation labour vi) Increase in morale of the employees vii) Reducing accidents and hazards to personnel viii) Reducing congestion ix) utilizing the space efficiently and effectively.
FACTORS AFFECTING LAYOUT
1. Material – materials need storage. Layout should cater to storage and transportation of materials. 2. Product – Layout should suit to the nature of product and its method of production. i.e. aircraft manufacturing and car manufacturing layouts will be different. Sales also affects the layout. 3. Machinery – Size of machinery based on product, its volume and labour, affects the layout. 4. labour – Movement of workers, facilities for workers like canteen, toilet, restroom etc affects the layout.
FACTORS AFFECTING LAYOUT
5. Location – Type of building depends on the soil condition. Location decides the transportation and layout plan has to take care of this aspect. 6. Managerial policies – top management decides the layout objectives 7. Type of industry
CRITERIA FOR GOOD LAYOUT 1. Flexibility 2. Maximum coordination 3. Maximum visibility 4. Maximum accessibility 5. Minimum distance 6. Minimum handling 7. Minimum discomfort- proper light, ventilation etc. 8. Inherent safety 9. Efficient process flow 10. Identification –provision of space to workers.
TYPES OF LAYOUTS The layouts are differentiated by the types of workflow they entail , and workflow in turn is dictated by the nature of product. Basic layouts are : 1. Process layout 2. Product layout 3. Grouping technology layout 4. Fixed position layout 5. Hybrid layout
These are appropriate for intermittent operations where work flow is not consistent for all output. Variable workflow occurs when variety of products or variation of single product are produced. This is also called as functional layout or jobshop layout. In this layout similar equipments are grouped and located at one place like lathe, drilling machines etc. Workers should be highly skilled. Intensive job instructions should be given to them and technical supervision is required. These layout are quick to change and adapt to the unique batches of the products.
ii) iii) iv) v) vi) 8) 9) 10) Advantages Greater Flexibility Better and more efficient supervision possible through specialization Breakdowns can be taken care by shifting the job to another machine Capacity of different product line can be expanded easily. Better utilisation of men and machine Disadvantages More work in progress More floor space More distances traveled by the product.
It is appropriate for producing one standardized product, usually in large volume. It is also called as flow –shop layout or straight line layouts. The machines are arranged according to the progressive steps by which the product is made. Examples: Chemical, paper, rubber, refineries, cement industry.
Product layout Advantages:
ii) Mechanization of materials is possible and material handling cost can be reduced. iii) It requires less floor area. iv) It facilitates better production control v) Production bottlenecks...