Expressive vs. Instrumental Motivations
Primordialism- Ethnic IDs are more fundamental than other types of ID. Ethnicity is not subject to rational cost/benefit calculations. It belongs to the realm of emotion. Ethnic mobilizations are motivated by expressive not instrumental needs. Participated is related to our search as human beings for security in an insecure world. Conflict based on ethnicity is inevitable, persistence is a given. Some would argue that, empirically, ID does appear to shift according to context. The theory is unable to explain prolong period of peace when it clearly states that conflict is inevitable. Instrumentalism- Multiple identities shit according to context. People Join forces only when there are benefits. Category that didn’t exist before can be created. Racial category of “Whites” for example previously did not exist. Ethnicity leads to conflict only when someone has something to gain. Mobilization is about getting something. The theory has a hard time of explaining the intensity and emotional quality of ethnic bounds, and the behavior of people who follow their leaders.
Vojvodina and Kosovo
Kosovo had a historical significance to the Serbs. They were a minority in Kosovo and they felt discriminated against largely for economic reasons. Tito made Vojvodani and Kosovo autonomous regions, he gave them veto power and representatives in the Federal presidency. In 1988 Milosevic was sent to Kosovo to hear out the complaints of the Serbs. To everyone’s surprise he didn’t stick to the communist party anti-nationalist line, instead he took side with the nationalists. Milosevic placed leaders in Vojvodina and Kosovo with men loyal to him in charge. Vojvodina and Kosovo lost most of their autonomy in September 1990. Instrumentalism is the case for Vojvodina and Kosovo. Under the years when Tito ruled economic growth furnished and everybody was happy. In contrast when Milsosevic came to power he encouraged and enhanced the population’s...
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