Iraq's invasion of Kuwait called forth the "lessons of Munich" against the uselessness of comforting hostility. The Renaissance, Reformation, and Enlightenment, once treated as transnational phenomena that shaped the modern world, are now deconstructed and denounced as myths invented to serve Western imperialism. These conflicts come about from two key factors, the dimension of ethnic identity and the dimension of cultural/religious identity. Ethnic identity can be defined as a group of people conceiving themselves as a race, community or society. Generally, ethnicity is based on a vertical emotional border. This emotional boundary can create a barrier against co-existence and give rise to potential conflict with other ethnic groups all the time. This general definition could be applied to any kind of group involved in an ethno-national conflict, whether in Iraq, the Middle East, or Southeast Asia. Culture and religion are combined here because the culture or identity of any society is not the result of a social virginity being born from nowhere. Rather, the cultural identity of a society expresses its fundamental self-understanding that constitutes the values of the people. In establishing religions people were looking for constitutional values. Religion became a cultural value to certain societies. For example, look at the Western political culture. It has been shaped by Greek philosophy, Roman law, feudalism, and the Renaissance. Western culture also has been shaped a great deal by Christianity, Judaism and by Islam.
Much of the Middle East experienced centuries of Ottoman rule, generally from the mid-sixteenth century up until the declining years of the nineteenth century. The Ottomans' hold on the Middle East was often tenuous and frequently interrupted. Perhaps the biggest relic of British rule was the institution of monarchy, which they secured in almost all the lands they ruled. Nevertheless, the powerful forces uniting the Middle East have at times also been sources of division and conflict. In many historical episodes subtle differences in dialect or ethnic identity have served as powerful catalysts for the communication of national or sub national loyalties.
The Middle East is far from monumental and homogenous. Its differences have been a source of both strength and inspiration. The most visible, most pervasive, and the least recognized aspects of Western influence are in the realm of material things. This involves the infrastructure, amenities, and services of the modern state and city. There was clearly no desire to reverse or even deflect the processes of modernization. Nor indeed were such things as airplanes and cars, telephones and televisions, tanks and artillery, seen as Western or as related to the Western philosophies that preceded and facilitated their invention.
Perhaps the most powerful and persistent of Western political ideas in the region has been that of revolution. The first self-styled revolutions in the Middle East were those of the constitutionalists in...