Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 years
Children’s development can be grouped into four different aspects: physical, social and emotional, intellectual and language.
The physical development of a baby in its first six months of life shows limited range of movement but the beginnings of an ability to respond to stimulus around them. They show their reaction to people, sounds and movement by turning their head toward whatever attracts their attention. They will watch an adult’s face whilst feeding, but have already begun to shows signs of recognition as they will smile when familiar people are around them either because they can see them or hear their voice. Physically, they are capable of reaching up to hold their own foot, but are not able yet to roll over on their own. They are able to look and to reach for objects which once in their hands, invariably ends up in their mouth!
Between six months and one year old, a baby’s response to their surroundings has developed so that they now have identified their own name. When the baby’s name is said, they will respond by turning and looking up. At this stage, babies are also able to raise their arms in anticipation of being lifted and are able to reach out for food. There are further physical developments before babies reach one year old - they are able to sit on their own without support and are no longer limited to lieing on their backs. They can roll over on to their tummies and back again. They gain a sense of movement by starting to crawl or shuffle along on their bottoms and the idea of standing by pulling or pushing against people or objects to help themselves up. In play, babies will be able to pat and poke objects, pass them from one hand to the other and look for things that have been hidden or dropped and not presume that they have just disappeared.
From one to two years old, awareness and response to surroundings has developed sufficiently for a child to be able to wave good bye, to point or make noises to indicate to an adult which object is wanted and also to shake their head and say ‘no’. Sitting alone is no problem and they are able to feed themselves. Their movement develops so that instead of crawling and shuffling, they begin to walk and eventually to crawl upstairs. Their play shows that they bend down to pick up objects from the floor using their thumb and first two fingers to grip, they will be able to bang objects together, to build with a few bricks and hold a crayon in their palm to make marks on a paper. This will usually reveal that a child is already developing a preference for using one hand. Toys will be pulled and pushed while walking and pictures in a book will be enjoyed.
At two years old, a child has physical developed enough to be able to throw objects and to kick a ball. Before they are three, they will be able to kneel to play, use a pencil to make marks on paper (and walls!) and scribble in circles. They will have developed enough fine motor skills to be able to pour liquids and build a larger tower.
Between three and seven years old, physical capabilities develop so that a child can walk on tip toes, they can jump with their feet together, walk up and down stairs and climb with increasing confidence. Fine motor skills develop so that they can catch a ball if it’s thrown gently, they can thread beads on a lace or string and they can control a brush to paint. Although children have already started to feed themselves, at this stage they will also use eating utensils with growing competency.
At four years old, a child can not only catch a ball, but can throw it with some aim. In play, they will be able to use scissors and hold a pencil sufficiently that they can draw a recognisable picture such as a house or people. They can use their feet to pedal a bike.
By five years old, a child can hop, catch a ball and kick a ball with...