Explain the Sequence and Rate of Physical Development from Birth to 19 Years

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Unit 6 Assessment Criteria 1.1

Explain the sequence and rate of development from birth to 19 years.

Physical Development:

Gross motor control: 0 – 3 years

1 month:Head droops if unsupported
Pulled to sit, head lags
Lies with head to one side
Large jerky movements of limbs
Arms active
Turns head from cheek to cheek when on tummy
Lifts head momentarily when on tummy
Lifts head (bobbing) when held in vertical at shoulder
Kicks legs rhythmically 2-3 cycles when on back
Looks at faces and objects

3 mths.Head held erect for a few moments before falling forward
Pulled to sit, a little head lag
Lies with head in midline
Movements smoother and continuous
Kicks vigorously, finger play, and brings hands together Lifts head and upper trunk while placing weight on forearms for three seconds when on tummy Glances at toy that is placed in hand when on back

Holds hands open or loosely closed when on back
Brings hand together when lying on back
Able to see with downward gaze when on back or supported sitting (chin tucking)

5 mths.Begins to roll from tummy to back
Extends both arms fully when on tummy

6 mths.Raises head to look at feet
Sits with support in pram
Holds arms up to be lifted, can roll over
In cot, lifts legs 90’ and grasps foot
Rolls from tummy to back purposefully
Sits alone 5-10 seconds while placing hands forward on surface to support self Pushes entire chest off surface with extended arms and open hands in prone Reaches with 1 hand for toy while on extended arm when on tummy Brings feet to mouth when on back

Catches self forward by extending arms forward and opening hands in sitting when losing balance

9 mths.Can lean forward to pick up a toy
Can sit alone for 10 – 15 minutes
Can turn body sideways to pick up a toy
Moves on floor by rolling, tries to crawl, when held steps purposefully on alternate feet Very active movements
Raises to hands and knees position and rocks
Creeps on hands and knees 5 feet using alternating arm and leg movement Transitions from hands and knees position by turning via side-sitting to sitting on bottom Pivots on bottom when sitting using arms or legs

Catches self to side by extending arm to side with open hand in sitting when losing balance Stands while holding on to furniture with wide base of support

12 mths.May stand upright alone for a few minutes
Sits confidently on the floor for long periods
Can pull up to stand and sit down again
Crawls. Walks around furniture and may walk alone
Drops and throws toys purposefully
Pulls to standing at furniture by leading with 1 leg
Lowers self to sitting on floor from standing at furniture without falling Walks with 1 hand held 4 steps
Walks along furniture (cruising)
Catches self backwards by extending arm in backward direction with open hand when losing balance Flings tennis ball by straightening shoulder or elbow when standing Rolls ball forward in sitting by using hand or arm contact

12-18 mths. Moves hesitantly and irregularly
Walks unaided and stands alone well
Poor balance, very unsteady, falls easily
Body rigid, legs wide apart, arms outstretched to aid balance Arms and legs used to achieve balance by moving opposite each other Creeps up stairs 3 steps
Transfers to standing by pushing through hands and feet
Stoops to pick up toy from floor and return to standing without losing balance Able to change direction while walking without losing balance Climbs in adult chair and turns around to sit
Seats self in small chair
Pushes and pulls large toys around the room
Carries large toy while walking without losing balance
Steps on or kicks into ball in attempt to imitate kicking ball Walks backwards 5 steps while pulling toy on string

19-24 mths.: Body less rigid, legs slightly apart, smooth pattern of
walking
Arms at side of body and not used for balance
Stops and...
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