**KNOW ADPIE FOR EACH DISORDER**
Upper airway contains: nose, sinuses, mouth, larynx, pharynx, trachea (everything but the lungs itself)
Lower airway: the lungs (bronchioles, alveoli)
4 functions of the resp system:
1. O2 transport: via circulating blood to tissues; CO2 will be exchanged from the cells back to the blood. 2. respiration: gas exchange from the air and the blood.
3. ventilation: the physical- inspiration and expiration.
4. pulmonary diffusion and perfusion: diffusion is the exchanges of O2 and CO2; perfusion is the blood flow that goes through the pulmonary circulation.
What is the chief complaint? The frequency resp. infections? How have they treated it (meds and therapies)? Risk factors (fam. History, occupation, COPD/ asthma, snoring)? A recent change in the ct’s family/work roles? ADLs affected?
- need a good description of what is going on
▪ Nose: externally- may have lesions, asymmetry, or inflammation; internally- mucosa, swelling, exudates, or bleeding. Inspect the septum for deviation, perforation, or bleeding; a deviated septum can affect the patency of the airway. - common cold: will appear swollen and hyperemic
- allergic rhinitis: appears pale and swollen
- nasal polyps: benign overgrowths of mms (mucous membranes) that is the body’s response to an irritant (with asthma or an allergy)
▪ Sinuses: will be tender (due to inflammation); will have a diffuse red glow when transilluminated.
▪ Mouth (tonsils, uvula, posterior pharynx): inspect for color, symmetry, exudates, ulceration, or enlargement.
▪ Trachea: direct palpation; may be displaced
▪ Lungs: require assessment through inspection (symmetry/ depth/ rate of the chest rising and falling); palpation (tactile fremitus), percussion (check for consolidation or air in the lungs), and auscultation...