ISBN 1-256-09271-1 Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Measure Your Progress: Learning Objectives
After you study this chapter, you should be able to 1. Identify the structures of the respiratory system. 2. Describe the process of respiration. 3. Describe common respiratory diseases and conditions, laboratory and diagnostic procedures, medical and surgical procedures, and drug categories. 4. Give the medical meaning of word parts related to the respiratory system. 5. Build respiratory words from word parts and divide and define respiratory words. 6. Spell and pronounce respiratory words. 7. Analyze the medical content and meaning of a pulmonology report. 8. Dive deeper into pulmonology by reviewing the activities at the end of this chapter and online at Medical Terminology Interactive.
Medical Language Key
To unlock the definition of a medical word, break it into word parts. Define each word part. Put the word part meanings in order, beginning with the suffix, then the prefix (if present), then the combining form(s).
Word Part -logy pulmon/o-
-logy means the study of
Word Part Meaning the study of lung
Figure 4-1 ■ Respiratory system. The respiratory system consists of two main organs—the lungs—and other structures connected to the lungs. These form a pathway through which air flows into and out of the body. ISBN 1-256-09271-1
Suffix Combining Form
Pulmonology: The study of the lungs (and related structures).
Medical Language, Second Edition, by Susan Turley. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Pulmonology | Chapter 4
Anatomy and Physiology
The respiratory system consists of the right and left lungs and the air passageways that connect the lungs to the outside of the body (see Figure 4-1 ■). The upper respiratory system in the head and neck includes the nose, nasal cavity, and pharynx (throat). The upper respiratory system shares these structures with the ears, nose, and throat system (discussed in “Otolaryngology,” Chapter 16). The lower respiratory system includes the larynx (voice box) and trachea (windpipe) in the neck and the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli in the lungs. The lungs fill much of the thoracic cavity. The purpose of the respiratory system is to bring oxygen into the body and expel the waste product carbon dioxide.
respiratory (RES-pih-rah-TOR-ee) (reh-SPYR-ah-TOR-ee) re- again and again; backward; unable to spir/o- breathe; a coil -atory pertaining to Select the correct prefix meaning to get the definition of respiratory: pertaining to again and again breathing. nasal (NAY-zal) nas/o- nose -al pertaining to Nasal is the adjective form for nose.
The respiratory system is also known as the respiratory tract. A tract is a pathway. The adjective cardiopulmonary reflects the connection between the heart and the respiratory system. Without the heart, oxygen brought into the lungs would never reach the rest of the body, and carbon dioxide produced by the cells in the body would never reach the lungs to be exhaled. cardiopulmonary (KAR-dee-oh-PUL-moh-NAIR-ee) cardi/o- heart pulmon/o- lung -ary pertaining to
Anatomy of the Respiratory System
Nose and Nasal Cavity
The nose contains the nasal cavity, which is divided in the center by the nasal septum. On each side of the cavity are three long, bony projections: the superior, middle, and inferior turbinates or nasal conchae (see Figure 4-2 ■). These jut into the nasal cavity and slow down inhaled air so that it can be warmed and moistened. The nasal cavity is lined with mucosa, a mucous membrane that humidifies the air and produces mucus. Mucus and hairs in the nose trap inhaled particles...