Evolution of Management

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Management has been continuously evolving over the past hundred of years. Various approaches have been utilized in order to adapt and improve management functions in the ever changing business environment. Managers are now equipped with principles and techniques developed through vast experience. So for the purpose of hastening the development of these management practices for the future, we must first examine the stream of evolving management thought of the past.

Early Perspective

As early as 3000 B.C., management has played a vital role when Egyptian ruler Cheops built a pyramid. The work required 100, 000 men to cover 13 acres of land and move stone slabs to the site of the pyramid across certain kilometers in distance. All the hammering and building was not heard in the villages which was only made possible by the principles of sound management.

Pre-Scientific Management (Before 1880)

Evidence of the use of the principles of management during this era is to be found in organizations like the Military and Catholic Church. However, this form of management is not practiced by most companies until the second half of the nineteenth century when the structure in the business world was simplified.

A textile mill manager in Scotland named Robert Owen made remarkable changes that had a huge impact in the productivity of his personnel in the plant. Another important name in this era is Charles Babbage, a British mathematician and teacher who believed in the use of accurate observations, measurements and precise knowledge in decision-making. Their ideas have created an awareness about existing managerial problems at that time.

Classical Management Era (1880-1930)

At the turn of the new century, efficiency and productivity became a critical concern of the managers. Among the major characteristics of the Classical Management Theory are rational economic view which assumes that people are motivated by economic gains, scientific management which...
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