Bartol, K (1998) states that before the classical approaches exist, there are some people to set up the foundations for the nature of management. Robert Owen, Charles Babbage and Henry P.Towne. Owen concerns for the working and living conditions of workers. Babbage builds the first practical mechanical calculator and a trial of modern computers, and suggested profit sharing. Towne call for studying management as a science and developed the principles of management. All of their ideas are still affecting the development of management until the 21st.
Campling (2008, p.90) states that about classical approaches, there are three major theories: scientific management, administrative principles and bureaucratic organization. These three theories all sharing the same assumption, it expected the workers will rationally to consider opportunities that are available to them and doing something that can generate the greatest benefit. Bartol, K (1998) states that Frederick Winslow Taylor is known as ‘the father of scientific management’. He developed specific principles of scientific management, such as time and motion studies and wage incentives. Kurt Reymers (1995) states that McDonald is the most famous company using scientific management. The company found that when workers followed the scientific management, they would work much more efficiently. It makes the worker become efficiency, predictability and calculability. Campling (2008, p.92) states that Henry Fayol developed the administrative principle. He suggested that all organization’s activities can fit into six functions: technical, commercial, financial, security, accounting and managerial activities. Also, he has 14 general principles of management: division of work, authority, discipline, unity of command, unity of direction, subordination of individual interest to general interest, remuneration, centralization, scalar chain, order, equity, stability of tenure, initiative and esprit de corps. Max Weber developed the bureaucratic management. This approach is highlighting the need of organizations to operate in a rational manner. He thinks his organization should have the following characteristics: specialization of labor, formal rules and procedures, impersonality, well-defined hierarchy and career advancement based on merit.
Bartol, K (1998) states that those principles also get some problem. Scientific management will make jobs overspecialized, low quality and turnover. Bureaucrat also has some problems. Such as excessive paperwork, slowness in handling problem, resistance to change and employee disgruntled. The different of classical theorists and behavioral approaches is classical theorists viewed people as a machine, find the way to use it more efficiently, but behavioral approaches are about the employee’s behavior being influenced by internal reactions to aspects of the job.
Campling (2008, p.94) states that The behavioral approaches of management is assumed that why people are working is because they want to satisfy the social relationships, respond to group pressures and search for personal fulfillment.
Campling (2008, p.94) states that Abraham Maslow is famous for the hierarchy of Needs, it comprises five levels of needs: physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem and self-actualization. For...