Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design

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Course Name: Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design (1)

Course number: 507322

Instructor: Dr. Enas Al-lozi

Chapter 1: The Systems Development Environment

Summary

▪ What is the key to success for any organization?

The ability to gather, organize and interpret information through systems analysis and design.

▪ What is systems analysis and design?

It is a method of creating and developing information systems that perform basic functions.

▪ Why the need to develop new Information systems?

1. To solve current problems within the organization.

2. To replace traditional information systems that is not capable of solving current problems.

3. To upgrade the efficiency of existing information systems in order to deal with the turbulent environment.

▪ What is a system?

It is a set of interrelated components that are working together to achieve a certain purpose.

▪ What are the characteristics of a system?

1. Components: The parts or sub-systems that make a system.

2. Interrelated components (relationships between the sub-systems): every sub-system is dependent on the other.

3. Boundary: the line that separates the system from the outside (external environment).

4. Purpose: all components work together to achieve a purpose (the reason of existing).

5. Environment: everything external.

6. Interface: point of contact between the system and the external environment.

7. Input.

8. Output.

9. Constraints: Limitations of what a system can do.

▪ What do we mean by decomposition?

Before developing an information system, you need to understand the components of the system to be developed. It is the process of breaking down the system into sub-components to:

1. Easily manage and understand.

2. Focus on one part at a time.

3. Understand what users exactly need.

4. Build each sub-system one at a time.

▪ What is modularity?

Modularity refers to the modules (sub-systems) that have been decomposed. It is different from decomposition is that the modules could be systems, each with sub-components.

▪ What is coupling?

Coupling is when a sub-system is dependent on another sub-system, and one alone cannot achieve its purpose. A mobile phone cannot work without sub-components working together.

▪ What is Cohesion?

Cohesion means that each sub-system can perform a single function, like the battery in a mobile phone.

▪ What are the major roles of a system analyst?

1. Study the problems.

2. Determine users’ requirements and needs.

▪ What are the skills needed to be a system analyst?

1. Analytical skills: analyze the business functions, the problems, and find solutions.

2. Technical skills: be able to understand and use the information technology.

3. Managerial skills: being able to manage projects, resources, and risks.

4. Interpersonal skills: know how to work with users and other analysts and programmers.

▪ What are the four stages of developing an information system?

1. Planning and selection of the system.

2. System analysis.

3. System design.

4. System implementation and operation.

▪ What do we mean by “planning and selecting” the system?

The first step in developing the system includes planning for the project, defining the problem, choosing the type of system, planning the scope of the project, the feasibility study, and managing the time, money and resources for doing the project.

▪ What is “system analysis”?

System analysis includes determining the requirements of users, analyzing the current systems, and how to replace them or enhance them.

▪ What is “system design”?

The designing phase has two stages; the first stage is the logical design which means creating a model or prototype or drawing a sketch of the system. The second stage...
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