This page is intentionally left blank.

The Universe is Only Spacetime

Particles, Fields and Forces Derived from the Simplest Starting Assumption John A. Macken Santa Rosa, California john@onlyspacetime.com

Original Draft – February 2010 Revision 7.0 – January 2013

©2010, 2012

i

Dedication: I dedicate this book to my wife, Enid, who has encouraged me and tolerated my idiosyncrasies over the years.

Acknowledgments: I wish to thank my friend, Dr. Nikolai Yatsenko, for volunteering to spend many hours teaching me aspects of quantum mechanics and general relativity. During these lessons I began the first steps of formulating a conceptually understandable model of the universe. Also Dr. Chris Ray has provided helpful comments on the text. Finally, I would like to thank Francis William Browne for editing the book.

ii

Table of Contents

1 Confined Light Has Inertia 1-1 • Light in a Reflecting Box • Confined Black Body Radiation • de Broglie Waves • 8 Particle‐like Properties of a Confined Photon

2 Definitions and Concepts from General Relativity 2-1 • Schwarzschild Solution • Definition of Gravitational Gamma Г • Schwarzschild Coordinate System • Coordinate Speed of Light • Shapiro Experiment • Gravity Increases Volume • Connection Between the Rate of Time and Volume 3 Gravitational Transformations of the Units of Physics 3-1 Why Are the Laws of Physics Unchanged When the Rate of Time Changes? • Normalized Coordinate System • Length and Time Transformations • Transformations Required to Preserve the Laws of Physics • Insights From the Transformations 4 Assumptions 4-1 • This Book’s Basic Assumption • QM Model of Spacetime • GR Model of Spacetime • Dipole Waves in Spacetime • Planck Length/Time Limitation On Dipole Waves • Impedance of Spacetime • 5 Wave‐Amplitude Equations • Bulk Modulus of Spacetime • The Single Fundamental Force 5 Spacetime Particle Model 5-1 • Superfluid Properties of Vacuum Energy • Spacetime Vortex • Particle Design Criteria • Inertia from Confined Energy • The Rotar Model of a Particle • Quantum Radius and Quantum Volume of a Rotar • Rotating Grav Field • Analysis of Lobes • Strain Amplitude Hβ • Soliton Condition 6 Analysis of the Particle Model 6-1 • Particle Size Analysis • Rotar Energy Test • Rotar’s Angular Momentum Test • Quantum Amplitude Equalities • Circulating Power • Rotar’s Theoretical Maximum Force Strong Force • Electromagnetic Force at Distance Rq • Gravity • Rotar’s Gravitational Force at Distance Rq • Weakness of Gravity • Force – Amplitude Relationship • The 4 Forces Are Intimately Connected • Rotar’s Inertia • Higgs Field Not Needed 7 Virtual Particles, Vacuum Energy and Unity 7-1 • Virtual Particle Pairs • Vacuum Energy • Harmonic Oscillators in Spacetime • Energy Density of Vacuum Energy • Energy Density Equals Pressure • Bulk Modulus of Spacetime • Vacuum Energy Is a Superfluid • Stability of Particles Made of Waves • Vacuum Energy Stabilization of a Rotar • Minimum Required Energy Density • Maximum Attracting Force • Asymptotic Freedom • Rotation of Molecules • Unity Hypothesis • Entanglement‐Unity Connection

iii

8 Analysis of Gravitational Attraction 8-1 • Nonlinear Effects of Waves in Spacetime • Newtonian Gravitational Equation Derivation • Connection between Gravitational Force and Electromagnetic Force • Equivalence of Acceleration and Gravity Examined • Comparison of a Rotar’s Rotating Grav Field and Gravitational Acceleration • Energy Density in the Rotating Grav Field • Gravitational Energy Storage 9...