General relativity is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915. According to general relativity, the observed gravitational attraction between masses results from their warping of space and time.

By the beginning of the 20th century, Newton's law of universal gravitation had been accepted for more than two hundred years as a valid description of the gravitational force between masses. In Newton's model, gravity is the result of an attractive force between massive objects. Although even Newton was troubled by the unknown nature of that force, the basic framework was extremely successful at describing motion.

Experiments and observations show that Einstein's description of gravitation accounts for several effects that are unexplained by Newton's law, such as minute anomalies in the orbits of Mercury and other planets. General relativity also predicts novel effects of gravity, such as gravitational waves, gravitational lensing and an effect of gravity on time known as gravitational time dilation. Many of these predictions have been confirmed by experiment, while others are the subject of ongoing research. For example, although there is indirect evidence for gravitational waves, direct evidence of their existence is still being sought by several teams of scientists in experiments such as the LIGO and GEO 600 projects.

General relativity has developed into an essential tool in modern astrophysics. It provides the foundation for the current understanding of black holes, regions of space where gravitational attraction is so strong that not even light can escape. Their strong gravity is thought to be responsible for the intense radiation emitted by certain types of astronomical objects (such as active galactic nuclei or microquasars). General relativity is also part of the framework of the standard Big Bang model of cosmology.

Although general relativity is not the only relativistic theory of gravity, it is the...

...The History of Classical Gravitational Theory and GeneralRelativity
In the beginning scientists and religious men of their era tried to explain the universe both biblically and scientifically. One of the foremost Greek scientists was Aristotle; taught by Plato, that the circle and sphere are the two most perfect shapes in a 2 and 3 dimensional universe, Aristotelian system placed Earth at the center of the universe; and all other heavenly bodies revolved around the earth in crystalline orbitals.
Another Greek Mathematician, Aristarchus theorized that the sun was the center of the universe and that the Earth revolved around it. His simple reasoning was constituted purely by the fact that the Earth is a much smaller body than the sun, and the smaller should orbit the greater.
By the 2nd century CE it became more and more apparent that the simplistic models derived nearly 2000 years before, were flawed. Kepler, a Scientist of the early 1600s concluded not only that the previously stated purely circular orbitals around the sun were in fact ellipses, and that planets travel faster when near the sun, and slower when farther from the sun, and lastly he found that the mathematical relationship between the orbital period, and the orbital radius of any given planet.
While Kepler was creating a new model of the universe Galileo Galilei was tearing apart the out dated Aristotelian system. Conceiving the theory of inertia,...

...“Only seeing general patterns can give us knowledge. Only seeing particular examples can give us understanding.” To what extent do you agree with these assertions?
In 2007, approximately 1.58 million scientific research papers were published, far more than one could possibly read in a lifetime. However, when I visited CERN last year, I was told that all of our present understanding of physics could be summarised in a few equations: GeneralRelativity, describing gravity; and the Standard Model, which describes the fundamental particles and their interactions. Can we gain complete knowledge about the universe through seeking general patterns, in the form of scientific theories? Or are we forced to trawl through the masses of observed data and scientific papers to understand even a fragment of reality?
I will argue that to understand something, you have to be aware of the mechanism causing it, whilst I associate knowledge with facts. Consider an astronomer who has spent his lifetime meticulously recording the locations of the planets and stars. I would argue that this astronomer has amassed much knowledge by observing of many particular examples. Now consider a physicist who is familiar with Einstein’s theory of generalrelativity, which models the movement of the planets and stars. We might argue that the physicist has more knowledge, since he can apply his theory to calculate the past...

...General Theory of Relativity
1). Background
GeneralRelativity is a theory of gravitation developed and published by Albert Einstein in 1916. Once when Einstein was preparing for a review of his theory of relativity, he thought about the fact that a man falling from the roof of a building doesn't feel his own weight. This idea, which he called "The happiest thought of my life", (Brian Greene, The fabric of the Cosmos) was the reason that led Einstein to develop the theory of GeneralRelativity.
Generalrelativity is not a difficult theory to comprehend like most of other scientific theories, even though the mathematics of it are complex and involve curved space geometry that is not easy to understand. Albert Einstein had problems with the mathematics of this remarkable theory for few years before he got to the “precise version of his famous field equation, and this equation looks very simple, but it actually involves ten different differential equations, and cannot be used in practice as it is (Walter B. Keighton, Physics: Its Laws, Ideas, And Methods).
Albert Einstein, after publishing his final paper of relativity, he totally did not expect precise solutions for his complex equation to come. Unexpectedly, a German physicist known as the father of astrophysics, Karl Schwarzschild has found an exact solution for this equation...

...consisted of a search for teleportation phenomena occurring naturally or under laboratory conditions that can be assembled into a model describing the conditions required to accomplish the transfer of objects. This included a review and documentation of quantum teleportation, its theoretical basis, technological development, and its potential applications. The characteristics of teleportation were defined and physical theories were evaluated in terms of their ability to completely describe the phenomena. Contemporary physics, as well as theories that presently challenge the current physics paradigm were investigated. The author identified and proposed two unique physics models for teleportation that are based on the manipulation of either the general relativistic spacetime metric or the spacetime vacuum electromagnetic (zero-point fluctuations) parameters. Naturally occurring anomalous teleportation phenomena that were previously studied by the United States and foreign governments were also documented in the study and are reviewed in the report. The author proposes an additional model for teleportation that is based on a combination of the experimental results from the previous government studies and advanced physics concepts. Numerous recommendations outlining proposals for further theoretical and experimental studies are given in the report. The report also includes an extensive teleportation bibliography.
15. SUBJECT TERMS
teleportation; physics,...

...Outlining GeneralRelativity and Space Time Curvature
In the real world, smooth, uniform motion is more an exception than a rule. Technically, any change in speed or direction is called acceleration (or deceleration), which can thus mean slowing down as well as speeding up, or simply a redirection. Ordinarily, an observer in an accelerating frame of reference can perceive its motion. Passengers in a car, for example, fell themselves pressed backward if the car starts suddenly from a dead stop. Their awareness seems to imply that acceleration is absolute, not relative; they need not refer to anything outside their frame of reference to detect their own motion. But if accelerated motion is absolute, it would have to be subject to a different set of natural laws from those that apply to uniform motion a proposition that Einstein found highly objectionable. He thus set out to conjure a more general theory that would apply to motion of all sorts. In the process, he developed a new theory of gravity.
The starting point was Galileo's finding that falling objects accelerate at the same rate despite differences in their mass: if dropped from the same height in a vacuum, a cannonball and a feather would hit the ground at the same time, due to lack of air resistance. Einstein was sceptical of Newton's explanation that the force of gravitational attraction precisely equalled an object's inertial mass. Einstein rejected the notion...

...
Reading Assignment #1: Vector Analysis
Textbook Sections that I read: 2.1-3
Important Concepts:
An interaction between two objects can be described and measured in terms of two forces. The force is a push or either a pull.
There are two types of forces. #1 is a long range force and this force does not require the objects involved to be touching each other. An example of this is when you are holding a magnet away from a refrigerator and you are able to feel the magnetic pull. #2 is a contact force and this occurs only when the objects are touching one another.
A vector in physics is another name for a force. All vectors have a direction in space and magnitude as well. Both direction and magnitude are of equal importance.
Any vector can be expressed as the sum of vectors that are parallel to the x-, y- axes (if needed the z-axes as well). These components indicate the magnitude and direction of the three vectors along the axes.
Reading Assignment questions:
8. (a) Is it possible for the sum of two vectors to be smaller in magnitude than the magnitude of either vector? Yes it is possible if the scalar product of the two vectors is negative. (b) Is it possible for the magnitude of the sum of two vectors to be larger than the sum of the magnitudes of the vectors? It isn’t possible because the sums would only be able to be equal at best.
18. (a) If two vectors have the same magnitude, are they necessarily equal? If not, why not? It depends on the direction they...

...obstacles on the way up, and reach the peak. In a similar vein, one of the immediate goals of contemporary theoretical physics is to build a quantum, uni ed description of generalrelativity and the standard model of particle physics. Once that peak has been reached, a new (yet unknown) vista will open up. In this essay I propose a novel approach towards this goal. One must address and resolve a fundamental unsolved problem in the presently known formulation of quantum theory : the unsatisfactory presence of an external classical time in the formulation. Solving this problem takes us to the very edge of theoretical physics as we know it today!
1
Modern physics can be said to have begun with the work of Kepler, Galileo and Newton, when the classical laws of motion of bodies were laid down, and the law of gravitation was discovered. The next major development in theoretical physics was Maxwell's theory for the electromagnetic eld, and the realization that light is an electromagnetic wave, which travels through vacuum at a universal speed. The inconsistency of this latter result with Newton's mechanics led to the special theory of relativity, and in turn, the incompatibility of special relativity and Newtonian gravitation saw the arrival of the general theory of relativity. Side by side, the failure of classical physics to explain observed phenomena...

...Generalrelativity or the general theory of relativity is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915. It is the current description of gravitation in modern physics. It generalises special relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation, providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time, or spacetime. In particular, the curvature of spacetime is directly related to the four-momentum (mass-energy and linear momentum) of whatever matter and radiation are present. The relation is specified by the Einstein field equations, a system of partial differential equations.
Many predictions of generalrelativity differ significantly from those of classical physics, especially concerning the passage of time, the geometry of space, the motion of bodies in free fall, and the propagation of light. Examples of such differences include gravitational time dilation, the gravitational redshift of light, and the gravitational time delay. General relativity's predictions have been confirmed in all observations and experiments to date. Although generalrelativity is not the only relativistic theory of gravity, it is the simplest theory that is consistent with experimental data. However, unanswered questions remain, the most fundamental being how general...