"Co-operation" says A.W. Green is the continuous and common endeavor of two or more persons to perform of a task or to reach a goal that is commonly cherished". Fair Child writes, "Co-operation is the process by which individuals or groups combine their effort, in a more or less organised way for the attainment of common objective". Herrill and Eldredge says, " co-operation is a form of social interaction wherein two or more persons work together to gain a common end".
Thus, co-operation is a process of social interaction which takes place between two or more individuals or groups for the achievement of common cherished goal or goals. Co- operation involves reciprocity, common goal, awareness about the consequences of co-operation, the spirit of working together, sharing the result and the required efficiency and skill. C.H Cooley also enlisted some elements of co-operation. They are common goal, rationality, self control and the capacity to organise etc. Thus, the main characteristics of co-operation are as follows:
1. It is an associative process of social interaction, is a conscious process.
3. It is a personal process in which the parties personally meet and work together.
4. It is a continuous process.
5. It is a universal process.
6. It has mainly two elements i.e. common end and organised efforts.
Types of Co-operation:
Different sociologists have classified co-operation into various types MacIver has classified in to two types i.e. direct and indirect co-operation. A.W.Gren has classified in into three types: They are (I) Primary; (ii) Secondary and (iii) Tertiary co-operation. Some other sociologist classified co-operation by taking into account the nature and size of the cooperating groups, forms of relationship involved in the co-operation and the system of regulating behaviors etc. Thus taking into account the above considerations, co-operation can be classified into the following types:
1. Direct Co-operation:
It is just opposite of direct co-operation. Here, the people do different work towards a common goal. In other words, the objective is common but every individual performs a specialised and differentiated function to achieve the end. This type of co-operation is prominent in modern city and industrial society, more particularly in large organisations where there is lack of personal tie or intimacy. This sort of co-operation is also seen in the organistion where the behaviors of the individuals are regulated by customs, tradition, and moored folk-ways or by law.
2. Indirect Co-operation:
It is that type of co-operation in which people directly co-operate with each other by doing a similar cavity to achieve common goal or goals. This type of co-operation is either due to the intimacy or closeness or due to small group tie because the face to face situation is itself a stimulus to the performance of the work. The contribution of the family members towards bringing up and rearing of children, house building, playing together, worshipping together, tilling the field together etc. are the examples of direct co-operation.
3. Primary Co-operation:
It is that type of co-operation in which there is no selfish interest and there is an identity of ends between those who co-operate. Blood relation, mutual obligation are the bases of primary co-operation. This type of co-operation is generally found in primary and small groups like the family, neighborhood and small communities. In the family and within the kin groups sharing each other's...