Ch. 23 - Ideologies and Upheavals 1815-1850 AP European History After studying this chapter, you should be able to: * describe the goals of the leaders of the Congress of Vienna and how the balance of power was reset. * define and describe conservatism, socialism, liberalism, and nationalism. * discuss the factors in the romantic revolt against the age of classicism and the French Revolution. * analyze the lingering remnants of the French Revolution and explain how they exerted influence on political development in the first half of the 19th century. Page 755-759 1. Describe and define the concept “balance of power” in 1814-1815. It refers to an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression by any combination of states or the domination of Europe by any single state. 2. Describe the treatment of France by the victors in 1814. Why wasn’t the treatment harsher? The Great Powers (Austria, Britain, Prussia, Russia) did not want to create a lasting enemy in France by imposing harsh and humiliating peace terms. As a result, treatment was quite lenient, with France given boundaries it possessed in 1792 (larger than those of 1789), the restoration of the Bourbon dynasty (Louis XVIII), no war reparations. The Great Powers did, however, define a strong defensive measures to ensure that France would not again be a forceful aggressor. 3. Who were the participants and what was the purpose of the Holy Alliance and the congress system? Established by Russia Czar Alexander I and made up of Austria, Prussia and Russia in 1815 – it was Alexander’s hope that leaders would rule with Christian virtues. It was, however, yet another instrument that oppressed liberal and revolutionary movements. 4. Describe the makeup of the Austrian Empire. Austria was made up of a plethora of ethnic groups – including the dominant Germans (25% of the population), Magyars (Hungarians), Czechs, Italians, Poles, Ukrainians, Slovenes, Croats, Serbs, and Romanians – complete with different languages, customs, religions, etc. 4b. How and why were nationalism and liberalism regarded as dangerous to those in power? Liberalism was considered dangerous because it supported the right of a “people” to establish its own independent government (nationalism). The idea of national self-determination would have destroyed the Austrian Empire and other areas comprised of various ethnic groups. Page 761-766 5. Explain the link between nationalism and liberalism. Liberalism demanded representative government, equality before the law, individual freedoms such as free press, free speech, free assembly, freedom from arbitrary arrest – all of which supported the idea of self-determination for the various ethnic groups of Europe and in direct conflict with the conservative status quo attitude of the Congress of Vienna. The idea of nationalism – one in which the idea that a people with a common language, territory, and history had the right to self-rule – was supported by the liberal idea of self-determination.
6. Complete the following chart. You may need to refer to the Sources book for some information. Individual Writing Major philosophy Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations 1776 Laissez-faire economics Government should not interfere in the economy Favored free trade among nations
On the Principle of Population 1798 Iron Law of Wages
Population growth will always exceed agricultural output, leading to poverty. Growing population was the cause of poverty for the poor. Growing population would cause cycles of poverty that were unavoidable
7. What is nationalism? A real or imagined cultural unity, manifesting itself especially in a common language, history, and territory. Also involves political unity so that a people coincide with its state boundaries. 8. Explain the link between nationalism and liberalism. Liberal ideas of self-government were only possible if a people were united by common...