When there are some physical, chemical or biological changes occur in our physical environment it is known as pollution and the substances which brings these changes are known as pollutants. The sources for the pollution can be natural or manmade.
Following are the types of Environmental pollution.
1. Air pollution
2. Water pollution
3. Soil pollution
4. Noise pollution
5. Marine pollution
6. Thermal pollution
7. Nuclear pollution
1.Air pollution: When some foreign particles enters the air and deteriorate its quality is known as air pollution. These particles can be produced naturally or manmade. Dust storms, Bacteria and gases of volcanic eruptions are examples of natural’s sources of pollutants. Gases released from the automobile and the chimneys are the example of manmade pollutants.Major Air pollutants: Carbon monoxide (CO), Ozone (O3), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Sulphur dioxide (SO2) and lead. How to control air pollution?
• Maintaining a healthy distance between the industrial and residential areas • The chimneys should be constructed tall in size so that the emissions must be released higher up in the environment • The sulphur must be removed after burning
• The gasoline must have anti knocking agents
• The railway track must be electrified
• The mining area should be planted with trees
• The coal fuel should be replaced with gas fuel to control the air pollution • The automobiles must be designed with emission control system • The wastes must be removed and recycled in the industrial plants and refineries • Plants like pinus and ribes need to be planted to metabolize the nitrogen oxides and other pollutants • Timely servicing of the car helps to keep it in a good condition, and also minimizes fuel exhaustion • Using public transportation helps to prevent the air pollution • Using alternative energy sources like solar energy, hydroelectric energy, and wind energy
2.Water pollution: When some foreign particle, organic, inorganic or biological impurities are added to the water so that it becomes unfit for use is known as water pollution. Major Water pollutants: Point Sources: Sewerage system and industrial effluents etc. Diffused sources: agriculture. Mining and construction etc. How to control water pollution?
• Water pollution can be controlled by using non-toxic soaps, detergents and cleaning products • Avoid chemical fertilizers and pesticides on your lawn and gardens • Dispose of paints, motor oil, gasoline, antifreeze and other harmful chemicals in accordance with your local laws and safety regulations • Protect groundwater, which is critical for drinking water, irrigation systems and natural ecosystems • Use chemicals in a proper way which may be harmful to the environment • Use environment friendly washing powders, cleaning agents and toiletries to control water pollution • Store chemicals in tightly sealed containers to avoid groundwater contamination • Reduce the runoff that comes from your property
• Maintain your vehicle
• Replace your lawn and high maintenance plants with native plants • Clean up pet waste
• Avoid using salt to de-ice walk ways
• Maintain your septic system
3.Soil pollution: When the productivity of the soil reduces due to the presence of pollutants in it is known as soil pollution. Man has polluted the soil by the excess use of pesticides. Major soil pollutants: Pesticides, fungicides and herbicides How to control soil pollution?
• Limit the use of fertilizers and pesticides
• Awareness about biological control methods and their implementation • The grazing must be controlled and forest management should be done properly • The afforestation and reforestation must take place
• Proper preventive methods like shields should be used in areas of wind erosion and wind breaks • Remember to carry paper bags and minimize using plastic...