OM0011 – Enterprise Resource Planning
Assignment - Set 1
Q1. What is Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)? What are the advantages of ERP?
“Enterprise Resource Planning: An accounting oriented information system for identifying and planning the enterprise-wide resources to make, ship and account for customer orders.” Again in Internet encyclopedia, it has defined as: “An enterprise planning system is an integrated computer based application used to manage internal and external resources, including tangible assets, financial resources, material and human resources”. Basically, an ERP combines several traditional management functions into a logical integrated system and facilitate flow of information across these functions. It is designed to model and automate basic processes across the organization over a centralized database and eliminates the need of disparate systems maintained by various units of the organization. The successful implementation of an ERP system will have many advantages, as indicated below: Business integration and Improved Data Accuracy: ERP system is composed of various modules/ sub modules where a module represents a particular business component. If data is entered in one module such as receiving, it automatically updates other related modules such as accounts payable and inventory. This updating occurs at real time i.e. at the time a transaction occurs. Since, data needs to be entered only once at the origin of transaction, the need of multiple entries of the same data is eliminated. Likelihood of duplicate/ erroneous data is, therefore, minimized. The centralized structure of the data base also enable better administration and security provisions, which minimizes loss of sensitive data. Planning and MIS: The various decision support tools like planning engines and simulations functions, form integral part of an ERP system which helps in proper utilization of resources like materials, human resources and tools. Constrained based planning help in drawing appropriate production schedules, thereby improving operation of plant and equipment. As a part of MIS, an ERP system, contains many inbuilt standard reports and also a report writer which produce ad hoc reports, as and when needed. Improved Efficiency and Productivity: In addition to provision of improved planning, ERP system provides a tremendous boost to the efficiency of day to day and routine transactions such as order fulfillment, on time shipment, vendor performance, quality management, invoice reconciliation, sales realization, and cash management. Cycle time is reduced for sales to cash and procurement to pay sequences. Establishment of Standardized Procedures: ERP system is based on processes of international best practices, which are adopted by the organizations during implementation. Department silos are purged and maverick practices are done away with. Because of top down view available to management, chances of theft, fraud and obsolescence are minimized. Flexibility and technology: Due to globalized environment, where production units, distribution centers and corporate offices reside in different countries, organizations need multi currency, multi language and multi accounting modes, in an integrated manner. These provisions are available in most of the ERP systems, particularly in products offered by tier 1 and tier 2 vendors. ERP vendors are also quick to adopt latest technologies, from mainframe to client server to internet. Unlike a bespoke system, Upgrading to latest technology for a running ERP system is uncomplicated, involving mostly adoption of service packs and patches.
Q2. What is business modeling? Explain.
Business modelling or creating a business model is one of the first activities in any ERP project. As mentioned earlier, the ERP systems should be a replica of the organisation’s business processes. A business model is not a mathematical model, but it is a...