Nowadays, English is the most widely used in the world and plays an important role together with the development of society and technologies. English is not only the effective means of communication but also show its progressive effects in many aspects of life. Practically, study on the similarities and differences between the two languages and cultures English and Vietnamese has been one of my concerns. It is clear that there are many differences between the two languages of as those in grammar, lexicology, translation, phonetic and so on. However there still exist plenty of similarities and differences between English and Vietnamese that can be demonstrated contrastive analysis. When choosing the subject for the assignment, I put much attention to adjective phrases because this field may make me confused. I hope that this study help me as well as other learners will understand adjective phrases in English and Vietnamese thoroughly. 2. Aims of the study.
My research aims at.:
+ Giving theoretical background of English and Vietnamese adjective phrases. + Analyzing of the word order in English adjective with Vietnamese equivalence + Presenting some difficulties faced by Vietnamese learners of English in adjective phrases and 3. Scope of the study.
During the study process, I have been attracted by adjective phrases. Because of time allowance and knowledge, I cannot cover all its constructions, functions, etc. but only focus on orders, and I introduce some similarities and differences of adjective phrases between English and Vietnamese for the research. PART B: DEVELOPMENT
I. Literature Review
I.1. Definition of Adjective phrase :
I.1.1. English Adjective phrase
According to Quirk et al.(57) and Greenbaunm (32), an adjective phrase is a phrase with an adjective such as big or happy as its head. Within the adjectives phrase, the adjective may be pre-modified (too careful) or post-modified (afraid of ghost ) or both of premodifed and post modified (too cold to swim, extremely afraid of ghost). The structure of the typical adjective phrase is shown at the following figure. The parenthesis indicate the optional elements.
Eg. I am tired
The room is full of smoke
The bus is very slow to set off
premod. head postmod.
I.1.1. Vietnamese Adjective phrase
According to Diệp Quang Ban (5) and Nguyễn Tài Cẩn (10), a Vietnamese adjective phrase is a phrase in which there is an adjective as a head. For example: tốt, vấn rất tốt, rất tốt, tốt quá. Like English adjectives, Vietnamese adjectives have the ability to combine with modifiers which are divided into two parts: modifiers preceding the head are called premodifiers, whereas those following the head are called premodifiers. In Vietnamese adjective phrases, some modifiers can appear both before and after the head. eg. xinh quá, quá xinh, cực kỳ tốt, tốt cực kỳ. Like the structure of noun phrases and verb phrases, the full construction of an adjective phrase consists of three components : a head, premodifier, and postmodifer and the short construction may consist of one component (a head) or two components (a head and premodifier or a head and postmodifier). The structure of the typical Vietnamese adjective phrase is in the following figure: premodifier(s) + head + postmodifier(s) I.2. Adjective phrases and their orders
I.2.1. Word order through syntactic functions of English adjective phrases According to Greenbaum (32) Adjective functions have two main functions: premodifier of a noun (attributive function) and subject predicative(subject predicative function). Eg.:
- premodifier of a noun (attributive function):
My cat is a very curious cat.
- Subject predicative(subject predicative function).:
My sister is very pretty
Besides, There are some other functions...