Vilnius Pedagogical University
Department of English Philology
An Introductory Course in Theoretical
Metodine mokymo priemone aukљtuju
© Vilnius Pedagogical University, 2003
Leidinys svarstytas ir rekomenduotas spaudai Uћsienio kalbu fakulteto Anglu filologijos katedros posedyje 2003 03 12, protokolo Nr. 5 Leidinys svarstytas ir rekomenduotas spaudai Uћsienio kalbu fakulteto Tarybos posedyje 2003 03 13, protokolo Nr. 4
Recenzentai: doc. dr. Graћina Rosiniene, doc. dr. Daiva Verikaite. 3
Traditional Grammar in Ancient Greece
Traditional Grammar in Ancient Rome
Non-Structural Descriptive Grammar
Structural Descriptive Grammar
Transformational – Generative Grammar
The Explanatory Power of Non-Structural Descriptive, Structural Descriptive and Transformational-Generative Grammar (by way of summing up)
Structural Features of Present – Day English
Grammatical Classes of Words
The Principles of Classification as Used by Prescriptive Grammarians The Principles of Classification as Used by Non-Structural Descriptive Grammarians
The Principles of Classification as Used by Structural Descriptive Grammarians
The Classification of Words in Post-Structural Traditional Grammar The Noun
The Semantic Classification of Nouns
The Grammatical Category of Number
The Grammatical Category of Case
The Category of Gender
The Category of Determination
Semantic Features of the Verb
Finite Forms of the Verb
The Category of Person
The Category of Number
The Category of Tense
Past Tense The Problem of Future Tense
Absolute and Relative Tenses
The Category of Aspect
The Category of Mood
The Category of Voice
The Category of Order (the Perfect)
The Function of the Category of Order
The Perfective Form and the Pefective Aspect
Non-Finite Forms of the Verb
The Verbal Features of the Infinitive. .
The Nounal Features of the Infinitive .
The Gerund .
The Participle .
The Adjective .
The Adverb .
The Pronoun .
The Preposition .
This book is intended for university-level students of English who have taken a practical grammar course and are now ready to take a course in theoretical grammar.
Our aim is to provide the students with a brief survey of English morphological problems in the light of present-day linguistics. We want to express our gratitude to Assoc. Prof. Algimantas Martinkenas, Dean of the Faculty of Foreign Languages, for the congenial atmosphere and encouragement, to the staff of the Department of English Philology, to Assoc. Prof. Graћina Rosiniene and Assoc. Prof. Daiva Verikaite for reading the manuscript and contributing valuable suggestions.
For a start, let us try and answer the question “what is grammar?” The term grammar is derived from the Greek word grammatike, where gram meant something written. The part tike derives from techne and meant art. Hence grammatike is the art of writing. Since its appearance in ancient Greece the term has undergone considerable modifications. In ancient Greece and ancient Rome the terms grammatike and grammatica respectively denoted the whole apparatus of literary study. In the middle ages, grammar was the study of Latin. In England, this conception of grammar continued until the end of the 16th century. Latin grammar was the only grammar learned in schools. Until then there were no grammars of English. The first grammar of English, Bref Grammar for English, written by William Bullokar, was published in 1585. The most influential grammar of English (published in 1762) was R. Lowth’s Short Introduction to English Grammar. It started the age of prescriptive grammar. To a prescriptive grammarian, grammar is rules of correct usage; its aim was to prescribe what...