Adjectives as Notional Part

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  • Topic: Adjective, Superlative, Noun
  • Pages : 22 (5942 words )
  • Download(s) : 135
  • Published : October 18, 2012
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CONTENTS

I. Introduction.......................................................................2 II. Semantic, Morphological and Syntactic Properties………………………………………………...3 1. Semantic Properties…………………………………..3 2. Morphological Properties…………………………….4 1. Base adjectives………………………………….4 2. Derived adjectives………………………………5 3. Compound adjectives…………………………...6 4. Degrees of comparison………………………….8 3. Syntactic Properties………………………………….10 III. Subclasses of adjectives………………………………...12 1. Relative adjectives……………………………………12 2. Qualitative adjectives………………………………....13 3. Substantivized adjectives……………………………..14 4. Statives………………………………………………..15 IV. Conclusion ……………………………………………....17 V. Practical Part …………………………………………...19 VI. Bibliography……………………………………………..21 VII. Appendix…………………………………………………22

INTRODUCTION

The whole of the English vocabulary is subdivided into eleven parts of speech; in point of fact, eight of them are notional words which make up the largest part of the vocabulary and five are "function words", comparatively few in actual number of items, but used very frequently. Adjectives are the third major class of words in English, after nouns and verbs, that’s why I think that this part of speech is merited detailed consideration. Thus the purpose of my coursework is to examine the adjectives as the notional part of speech. An adjective is a word which expresses the attributes of substances (good, young, easy, soft, loud, hard, wooden, and flaxen). As a class of lexical words adjectives are identified by their ability to fill the position between noun-determiner and noun and the position after a copula-verb and a qualifier. As the other parts of speech adjective has:

1. Special meaning (semantic properties);
2. Form (morphological properties);
3. Function (syntactic properties).
All the adjectives are traditionally divided into subclasses: 1. Qualitative adjectives,
2. Relative adjectives,
3. Substantivised adjectives,
4. Statives.
This coursework will perform the detailed description of the properties and subclasses of the adjectives, including examples.

SEMANTIC, MORPHOLOGICAL AND SYNTACTIC PROPERTIES

I. Semantic Properties

The adjective expresses the categorial semantics of property of a substance. It means that each adjective used in the text presupposes relation to some noun the property of whose referent it denotes, such as its material, colour, dimensions, position, state, and other characteristics both permanent and temporary. It follows from this that, unlike nouns, adjectives do not possess a full nominative value. Indeed, words like long, hospitable, fragrant cannot effect any self-dependent nominations; as units of informative sequences they exist only in collocations showing what is long, who is hospitable, what is fragrant. The semantically bound character of the adjective is emphasised in English by the use of the prop-substitute one in the absence of the notional head-noun of the phrase. E.g.: I don't want a yellow balloon, let me have the green one over there. On the other hand, if the adjective is placed in a nominatively self-dependent position, this leads to its substantivisation. E.g.: Outside it was a beautiful day, and the sun tinged the snow with red. Cf.: The sun tinged the snow with the red colour.

II. Morphological properties

As is well known, it has neither number, nor case, nor gender distinctions. Some adjectives have, however, degrees of comparison, which make part of the morphological system of a language. Thus, the English adjective differs materially not only from such highly inflected languages as Russian, Latin, and German, where the adjectives have a rather complicated system of forms, but even from Modern French, which has preserved...
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