(i) energy efficiency and conservation, development of energy service companies, and application of smart grid technologies; (ii) renewable energy, including wind, concentrated solar, biomass, geothermal and small hydropower; (iii) cleaner and lower carbon fossil fuel technologies and carbon capture and storage; (iv) access and transmission grid strengthening; and
(v) development of regional power projects and trading arrangements.
3.) Diversification of generation mix by increasing nuclear, gas, renewables, and clean coal. Fossil fuels(coal, oil and gas) make up more than 92% of the current share in South Africa. By 2030 the DOE requires that the Renewables should contribute about 26% and Nuclear about 13% of the share.
4.) Making the existing and new coal capacity cleaner
South Africa has enough coal (reserves are estimated at 53 billion tonnes, with almost 200 years of supply left) calculated at current production levels. Over 70% of the country’s primary energy comes from coal, approximately half being used for electricity generation and a quarter for synfuels. For coal to play its deserved role in energy security, its many detrimental environmental impacts must be addressed. This will require not only clean coal technologies for new plants, but also rehabilitation and refurbishment of existing inefficient plants. •Development of a clean coal technology roadmap and involvement in the SA process •Co-firing with Biomass
•Supercritical technology for Medupi and Kusile (air cooling), •Underground coal gasification pilot
•Development of a Carbon capture and storage strategy and involvement in developing an atlas for SA
•National Policy Interventions supporting renewables...