* Make it safe for employees to engage in voice. For example, reward the courage that employees show by challenging standard procedures. * Teach managers how to be exceptional listeners, and to receive and respond appropriately to constructive feedback. * Teach employees how to make suggestions even when they feel uncomfortable or when others don't agree with them * Help everyone see the big picture and the value of their individual contributions. Employees who feel connected to the organization are more likely to speak up because they have a vested interested in its success. LePine, J.A. & Van Dyne, L. (2001). Voice and cooperative behavior as contrasting forms of contextual performance: Evidence of differential relationships with Big Five personality characteristics and cognitive ability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 326-336.. Whiting, S.W., Podsakoff, P.M., & Pierce, J.R. (2008). Effects of task performance, helping, voice, and organizational loyalty on performance appraisal ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93:125-139
It has also been argued that the way employees are treated through the provision of opportunities for voice may have a more significant impact on commitment than the way employees are paid (Blinder, 1990:21).
Boroff and Lewin’s (1997) loyal employees who experienced unfair treatment were more likely to respond by suffering in silence.