Emergence of Pakistan:
The Indian Independence Act was passed by the British Parliament on July 18, 1947, giving rise to the Indian Union and Pakistan. It also saw the end of British raj in India from August 15, 1947. The Muslims of the sub-continent had finally achieved their goal to have an independent state after a long and relentless struggle under the single-minded guidance of the Quaid. Pakistan emerged on the map of the world in 1947. This came about beacuse of the Two-Nation Theory of which Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was the first exponent. According to the theory there were two nations, Hindus and Muslims living in the territory of the sub-continent. He believed that India was a continent and not a country, and that Hindus and Muslims were the two major nations on the basis of nationality, religion, way-of-life, customs, traditions, culture and historical conditions. The politicization of the Muslim community came about as a consequence of three developments: 1. Various efforts towards Islamic reform and revival during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. 2. The impact of Hindu-based nationalism.
3. The democratization of the government of British India.
The demand for a seperate identity of Indian Muslims was presented in the Simla Deputation to Lord Minto, the Governor General of India, in October 1906. The All India Muslim League was founded the same year to counter the Hindu-dominated Indian National Congress (INC) as the Muslims of India had lost trust in the INC. To win grass-root support for their political movements Congress leaders used Hindu religious symbols and slogans, arousing Muslim suspicions regarding the secular character of the INC. Events like the Urdu-Hindi controversy (1867), the partition of Bengal (1905), and Hindu revivalism, set the two nations, the Hindus and the Muslims, further apart. Re-annulment of the partition of Bengal in 1911 by the British government brought the Congress and the Muslim League on one platform. Starting...
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