2.3 Definition of a Microcontroller11
2.4 Microcontrollers vs Microprocessors12
2.5 Memory Unit13
2.6 Central Processing Unit14
2.8 Input Output Unit16
2.9 Serial Communication16
2.10 Timer Unit17
2.11 Watch Dog18
2.12 Analog to Digital Converter19
3. Introduction to EEPROM21
3.2 Application/ Operation of EEPROM21
4. Introduction to 16X2 LCD Display23
4.1 Pin description23
4.2 DDRAM - Display Data RAM24
4.3 BF - Busy Flag24
4.4 Instruction Register (IR) and Data Register (DR)24
4.5 Commands and Instruction set24
4.6 Sending Commands to LCD24
5. Introduction to I2C Bus26
5.1 Basic Definition26
5.2 Inside the box26
5.3 Communication 27
5.4 A simple bus 28
5.5 The elegance of I2C 28
6. Project Description30
6.1 Ballot unit31
6.1(a) Block diagram31
6.1(b) General working31
6.1(d) Assembly language code34
6.2 Control unit37
6.2(a) Block diagram37
6.2(b) General working37
6.2(d) Assembly language code47
7. Project Methodology72
7.1(a) Ballot unit72
7.1(b) Control unit73
7.2 Softwares used74
7.3 Equipments used74
7.4 Procedure of building the EVM74
7.5 Using the Electronic Voting Machine75
7.6 Hardware schematic78
7.6(a) Ballot unit78
7.6(b) Control unit79
7.6(c) Complete EVM system80
8. Result and Conclusion81
10. Future Scope83
11. References and Bibliography84
India is world’s largest democracy. It is perceived to be charismatic one as it accommodates cultural, regional, economical, social disparities and still is able to stand on its own. Fundamental right to vote or simply voting in elections forms the basis of Indian democracy.
In India all earlier elections be it state elections or centre elections a voter used to cast his/her vote to his/her favorite candidate by putting the stamp against his/her name and then folding the ballot paper as per a prescribed method before putting it in the Ballot box. This is a long, time-consuming process and very much prone to errors.
This situation continued till election scene was completely changed by electronic voting machine. No more ballot paper, ballot boxes, stamping, etc. all this condensed into a simple box called ballot unit of the electronic voting machine.
EVM is capable of saving considerable printing stationery and transport of large volumes of electoral material. It is easy to transport, store, and maintain. It completely rules out the chance of invalid votes. Its use results in reduction of polling time, resulting in fewer problems in electoral preparations, law and order, candidates' expenditure, etc. and easy and accurate counting without any mischief at the counting centre. It is also eco friendly.
Our EVM consists mainly of two units - (a) Control Unit (CU) and (b) Ballot Unit (BU) with cable for connecting it with Control unit. Both the units consists of one microcontroller (8052) each. The CU consists of one LCD, one hex keypad and a couple of switches, while BU consists of a candidate panel, a votecast panel and a buzzer, etc.
This project is based on assembly language programming. The software platform used in this project are Keil uVision3 and SPIPGM37.
Democracy And Voting
Democracy has come to be accepted as the most preferred form of...