A TERM PAPER ON COMMUNITY NUTRITION
DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY HEALTH
AJITE KAYODE .O CLP/ 08/09/EX/MPH/2757
TABLE OF CONTENT
3. LITERATURE REVIEW
Garcinia kola (Bitter Kola) is a specie of flowering plant in the Clusiaceae family. It is found in Benin, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. Among the Yorubas in Nigeria, it is known as “Orogbo”. Contraception can be achieved by suppressing ovulation. Ovulation, an important process in female reproductive function is an inflammatory process. Among other important activities of Garcinia cola extract is the anti inflammatory activity. Therefore ingestion of G. cola has been linked with ovulation suppression in experimental animals and humans.
The quest for naturally occurring compounds of herbal or plant origin that could be of benefit as contraceptive and fertility control agents has stimulated the interest in Garcinia kola (Guttiferae) seeds (‘bitter kola’) which is widely consumed as a stimulant1. Garcinia kola (Bitter Kola) is a specie of flowering plant in the Clusiaceae family. It is found in Benin, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. Among the Yorubas in Nigeria, it is known as Orogbo.2 Traditionally used to treat illness by African medicine men, trials on the plant have shown promising signs that it may benefit Ebola victims by slowing down multiplication of the virus, giving the victim's body more time to develop a proper autoimmune response.3 The active compound responsible for its curing properties is a dimeric flavonoid, much like those found in orange and lemon rinds, and yields to modification, so even if this particular plant cannot cure Ebola on its own, it provides the foundation from which scientists can discover a cure. Studies, if successful, could spill over to other types of antiviral treatment.3
AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF GARCINIA KOLA
A study in a Nigeria university reported that the amino acid composition of Garcinia kola was evaluated by ion-exchange chromatography4. The aim of the work was to analyze the amino acid profile of the samples. Glutamic acid was the most concentrated acid in the kola. The total amino acid was 112.90 mg/g protein .G. kola. The percentage total essential amino acid was 47.05%. Also the percentage total acidic amino acid was 30.61%. The calculated isoelectric point was 0.7 showing that it can be precipitated at acidic pH. Valine was the limiting amino acid G. kola. The percentage cystine (Cys) level in the total sulphur amino acid was 37.75% (G. kola). The study conclusively recommended that G. kola consumption be avoided by ulcer patients because of the high level of acidic amino acids. The amino acid score ranged from 42% to 127%, suggesting that it could be used to enhance the protein quality of cereals through food complementation4. Furthermore, Adaramoye reported in another study5, functional evidence that the vasorelaxant effects by kolaviron (an extract of Garcinia cola) involve extracellular Ca(2+) influx blockade, inhibition of intracellular Ca(2+) release and the opening of K(+) channels with a resultant membrane hyperpolarization/ repolarization. This...