1. The problem of infertility and its causes
In-Vitro Fertilisation refers to the technique of reproduction which is an antithesis to the biological reproduction .As the name suggests,in this method of fertilisation the egg is fertilised outside the mother’s body when natural fertilisation is not feasible. Infertility is a common problem being faced by couples which is not limited to any particular group, region or country but rather couples across the world are plagued by this disheartening disorder. Infertility can be attributed to wide variety of factors ranging from social to biological. Age is a major factor when it comes to the determinants of infertility. According to the examination done by Collins in his work Infertility: Evaluation and treatment, the factors causing infertility were mainly ovulatory disorder in 27 percent cases, semen abnormality in 25 percent , 22 percent cases were attributed to tubal occlusion and endometriosis was held accountable for 5 percent of the cases of infertility. Strikingly, 17 percent of infertility disorders still remain unexplained. Other lists of infertility causes include cervical mucus factor, immunological factor and endometrial factor in 5–15% of cases (qtd. Dickey and Brinsden 19).Voorhish emphasises that there is a significant decline in the probability of conception amongst women as their age advances. An increase in the rate of miscarriages is also prominent amongst ageing women. It is also stated that after having undergone a treatment to cure infertility, women beyond 35 years of age are less likely to conceive as compared to younger women. (379).Dohle and Colpi suggest that reduced male fertility can be a result of various facts like from congenital or acquired urogenital abnormalities, infection of male accessory glands, increased scrotal temperature, endocrinal and genetic abnormalities or poor immunity. In the causes of male fertility no visible etiology could be figured out for 48.5%. (qtd .Richard, Brinsde, Pyrzak 7).Besides the biological factors, the recent trends and attitude towards the age of marriage are also responsible for shaping up the fertility rates. These days the career oriented youngsters often get married at a later point of time in their lives and subsequently the age for conception is also being delayed. The fact is established by the figures that show that the usual maternal age at the time at the birth of the first child has increased to an average of 25.1 in the year 2002 as compared to 21.4 in 2008.Neverthless the increase in age diminishes the child bearing capacity of both men and women thereby affecting the fertility rate in general. (Voorhis,379) Keywords: urogenital organs or functions of excretion and reproduction (Merriam Webster Online Dictionary) Etiology-study of the causes of a disease (Collins Co-build Advance Dictionary of English))
2. The IVF Cycle-The Procedure
Brian and Elder describe the various stages and procedures involved in the InVitro Fertilization cycle. The first step is consulting a doctor, where the doctor would undertake a detailed investigation of medical history of the patients in order to figure out the causes and remedies for the problem. (Elder, Dale 109).The major phases of the assisted conception treatment cycle are ovarian stimulation, egg retrieval fertilization, embryo culture. These are followed by the transfer of embryos to the uterus.( Voorhis,380) Embryos- “Unborn animal or human being in early stages of development”( Collins Co-build Advance Dictionary of English)
3. IVF –A boon for the treatment of Infertility
Statistics reveal that In-vitro fertilisation is the method of treatment of fertility that results in the highest per cycle pregnancy rates. These rates are independent of the nature of the cause of infertility. In-Vitro fertilisation was brought into practice in the year 1978 and since then this seems to be the most popular choice if we refer to the...