The objective of this study tests theory is "Culture influence on business management".
Epistemology and Ontology
There are two kinds of question could use in this study, epistemology and ontology.
Epistemology theory shows the things we know about them from reading or learning. And making the decisions depend on the knowledge or after some researches. There are three key points questions can following about it:
What is the knowledge?
How to receive the knowledge?
How can we know what we really know?
Most of the arguments around this area are about analysis the knowledge nature how to collect with truth, belief, justification in a natural science model. And it also means that the production of knowledge and the scepticism to different knowledge in particular positivism. This is a chart which can follow the principle of that: [pic]
In this theory, it includes positivism and interpretivism.
Positivism includes application of natural science methods to social science research; phenomenalism; deductivism; inductivism; objective, value-free researcher; distinction between scientific and normative statements.
"Interpretivism is predicated upon the view that a strategy is required that respects the differences between people and the objects of the natural sciences and therefore requires the social scientist to grasp the subjective meaning of social action"(Bryman, 2011).
On the other side, there are four key points questions can following about ontological:
Social ontology: the nature of social entities?
What kinds of objects exist in the social world?
Do the social entities exist independently of our perceptions of them? Is social reality external to social actors or constructed by them?
In this theory, it includes objectivism and constructionism. Objectivism is a position of ontology that social problems and it means the independent of social actors. It means there are the independent or individual actors in social phenomena and the categories as we use the normal conversation everyday.
Constructivism shows the social problems and it means the social phenomena produced by social actors. The social phenomena also produced by the social communication. And this situation is in a constant state of revision. The accounts of researcher are constructed in the social world. "Knowledge is viewed as indeterminate"(Bryman, 2011).
Combine these theories in this study, the social phenomena shows people are independent or individual actor living in the world. The social development is depend on people's normal social communication activity. In this process, knowledge is not indeterminate, it need to develop and improve through people activities.
There are a large number of information illustrates that culture influences on business management. As Hofstede builds a theory of culture, there are four cultural dimensions such follow by: Power distance; Uncertainty avoidance; Individualism vs. Collectivism; Masculinity vs. Femininity. Much of the interest in national cultures and cultural differences in recent times has been accompanied and reinforced by two emerging concerns (Leat, 1998):
• The national business activities, multinational cultural and business management effect to their staff face the multiplex developmental problems quickly; • On the other hand, the "American theories" connecst to the traditional and dominant position in the organizational structure, company behavior and management, all of these depend on and illustrates "American culture".
In nowadays, culture really influences business management as well as this information. That is an important topic in the world now.
Hypothesis, deduction and induction
These are the hypothesis of this study:
If cultural background is the key point to people when they manage their own company, then this company management will follow its cultural...