Grand Canyon University: Res 811- 0103
November 28, 2012
One of the most important elements as a Doctoral Student is learning how to effectively manage your time and understanding the importance of empirical research. “Learning to strategically read empirical studies can help doctoral learners manage time more effectively (GCU Lecture 2, 2012 p. 1). In this paper, one will find a complete comparison of three articles that will review the different forms of research questions posed for the studies, sample populations used, the limitations, literature review, study conclusions, and recommendations for further research. Article one analyzed Transformational Leadership in the Public Sector: Does Structure Matter, written by Bradley Wright and Sanjay Pandey in April of 2003. The writer’s intent concluded that followers must be flexible in order for their leader to motivate them beyond satisfaction of their job performance. According to Wright and Pandey (2003), transformational leaders essentially direct, inspire, and empower their employees. Article two analyzed the Effect of Transactional and Transformational Leadership styles on the organizational commitment and Job Satisfaction of Customer Service (Emery and Barker November, 2007). The writers intent points out those transformational leaders who are charismatic provide intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration will reap benefits of having greater employee commitment and customer’s satisfaction. Article three analyzed Sex Effects in Evaluating Leaders written by Kathryn Bartol and D. Anthony Butterfield in August of 1976. The writer’s intent implies that sex, males and females roles, have an effect on evaluations of a leaders behavior.
Different Forms of Research Questions
In order to have effective research questions, one must provide exceptional facts that are obtainable through research setting that goes beyond the group that participates in the research (Creswell, 2007). There are four different types of research methods a researcher can gather. They are qualitative, quantitative mixed and critical and action research. The articles that were examined were qualitative and quantitative research. Article one identifies five hypotheses to better understand the behaviors of transformational leaders Wright and Pandey (2003). The authors present the results of weak communication, valuing of extrinsic reward –performance, and use of organizational performance which can affect the behavior of the transformational leader. However, article two identifies only two hypotheses to better understand the characteristics of the transformational and transactional leaders Emery and Barker (2007). The author examines the differences between transactional and transformational leadership style and its affect of customer service and employees satisfaction. In contrast, article three identifies three hypotheses to better understand how gender can contribute in evaluating managerial behavior and leadership styles. Article one and two research questions are specify types of leadership styles, however article three does not specify a particular style of leadership. Article three references all leadership types as a whole.
Sample Populations Used
A “population” consists of all the subjects you want to study. By correctly drawing a sample from a specific population, a researcher can analyze the sample and make inferences about population characteristics (Yount, 2006). Article one provides a sample target of 1,322 high level public administrators in municipalities exceeding 50,000 residents. Having a sample size of this amount may provide substantial data. On the other hand, article two displays sample size of 77 branch members from three regional banking organization and 47 managers from a store from one national food chain. In contrast, article three sample sizes consisted of 312 students...