Earthquake Resistance Structure

Topics: Earthquake, Earthquake engineering, Masonry Pages: 15 (4090 words) Published: September 12, 2010



3)Causes of earthquakes

4)Basic terminology:
a)Hypocentre, b)Epicentre c)Focal depth 5)Earthquake size


6) Earthquake hazard

a)Primary effects
b)Secondary effects

7)Earthquake loads on buildings

8)How Buildings Respond to Earthquakes

9)Common Modes of Failure
a)Structural failure
A)sliding shear
B) Diagonal cracks
C)Effect of overturning
b)Nonstructural failure
c)Site Failures
d)Foundation Failures

10)Designing Masonry Buildings for Earthquakes
a) Masonry Materials
b) Construction Systems
A) Walls
B)Door and window openings
C)Floors and Roofs

12) References

The paper summarizes and analyses the basic requirements associated with initial conceptual design of reinforced concrete and masonry buildings that are included in Eurocode 8 (EC8) into an easily understandable synopsis accompanied with practical examples and pictures. The synopsis is intended to be used by architects and other types of engineers; its purpose is to increase the knowledge about the rules of earthquake resistant design, especially about those that should be respected during initial conceptual design of the building. In this way we can approach the problem of constructing an earthquake resistant structure from another end, by trying to avoid the “bad” structure layouts already during the initial design phase. Introduction

The experiences from the past strong earthquakes prove that the initial conceptual design of a building is extremely important for the behaviour of the building during an earthquake. It was shown repeatedly that no static analysis can assure a good dissipation of energy and favourable distribution of damage in irregular buildings, such as, for example, structures with large asymmetry or distinctively soft storeys. The responsibility for a “good” initial conceptual design lies with the architect, as well as with the structural engineer providing numerical proof of the structure’s safety. The guidelines for a “good” conceptual design are included in building codes, however, the codes are much more suited to the needs of structural engineers as to the needs of architects. This can be seen also in recent EC8, where many requirements related to initial design include formulae with parameters that could be obtained only by preliminary static analysis. On the other hand, same requirements are formulated only as recommendations and their fulfilment depends on experience and judgment of the designer. From this point of view the cooperation between architect and structural engineer would be therefore necessary also during the initial phase of the design of the building. In practice it is difficult to perform static analysis if, for example, the floor plan is still under discussion, so this cooperation is not working properly in many cases (especially for less complex buildings). It is evident that architects should be familiar with the basic rules of earthquake resistant design, so that they can be incorporated in their building solution already from the first sketch. The present paper summarizes and analyses the requirements associated with initial conceptual design that is included in EC8 into an easily understandable synopsis accompanied with practical examples. Causes of earthquakes

Earthquakes are caused by a sudden rupture of crustal blocks. Their size (magnitude) depends on the dimensions of the rupture plane and the degree of displacement. Rupture is caused by the constant movement of large tectonic plates. Earthquakes may occur on the contact plane between two plates – e.g. the San Andreas Fault in California – or on the numerous secondary faults in plate boundary zones or – less frequently – within a plate. Though more seldom, such intraplate...
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