Do Work Hours Affects Gpa, an Apa Style Research Paper

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Abstract
The decision to work or not while going to college is a decision many have to face. The Big Five Personality factors’ have been the focus of much research. In the following study we wish to look at the relationship between work hours and GPA, work hours and Extraversion, and work hours and Neuroticism. The study used 98 subjects who took two self inventories. The results indicated that there was no significant relationship between any of the variables tested. Neuroticism was approaching significance.

Work hours across Neuroticism and Extroversion, and Grade point Average.

A decision facing most college students while attending school is to whether or not to work. Current economic times have probably increased the need for more students to make the choice to work. Student participation in the workforce has a number of likely consequences(Bradley 2006). For example, the most frequently cited reason for working is financial necessity, and the most common reason for not working is likely interference with studies (Lucas & Lammont, 1998). Since Grade Point Average is a high predictor of going on after college, something very common for Psychology students, this could affect one’s decision regarding the choice to work. Of course, not everyone has the choice to work, for some it is a necessity. Of the Big Five Personality scales, people who score high on Extraversion tend to enjoy being active, have lots of energy and tend to be more sociable. Students with personality patterns characterized by high independence combined with high Extraversion were more likely to engage in paid work, and congruence of interests combined with a low score on tough-mindedness fosters a larger share of study time. (Brandstätter, H., & Farthofer, A. 2003). People who score high on Neuroticism tend to be anxious, depressed and less likely to be social.

Looking at the above research, the following relationships were looked for: a. People who work 20 or more hours will have lower GPAs than those who work 10 or less hours. People who scored high in Extraversion will be more likely to work more than 20 hours. People who scored high on Neuroticism will be more likely to work less than 10 hours.

Method
Subjects
There were 131 subjects in the data set; all subjects were students who came from a medium sized public polytechnic university located in California. All subjects were taking a Quantitative Research Methods class; for Psychology majors this is a required course which explains how they comprise the majority of the sample, with a few being Social Science majors. The 131 subjects consisted of 20 male and 110 female, note that 1 value was missing; this could have been due to input error, or subject error (see Appendix). Since Quantitative Research Methods is a 300 level class, it is likely the majority of students are juniors and seniors. It should be noted that since hours worked was transformed from a scale variable to a categorical variable, our subject numbers changed to 98 subjects, 49 subjects in group 1, and 49 subjects in group 2.

Instruments
The first of the two inventories given was a general survey about attitudes towards quantitative research methods and statistics, lifestyle questions (e.g how many hours do you study, work, exercise) with these being scored from 0-99 depending on the self report. Lifestyle questions (e.g. do you like sensation seeking activities, sudoku, spicy food?) are being scored as 1(not at all) or 10 (all the time) and demographic information (e.g. gender).

The second inventory given was a personality inventory assessing standing on the Big Five Dimensions of Personality; Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism and Openness. [Briefly defined, Extraversion summarizes traits related to activity and energy, dominance, sociability, expressiveness, and positive emotions. Agreeableness contrasts a prosocial orientation toward others with...
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