* Risk: Risk is a measure of the expected losses due to a hazardous event . The level of risk depends on: * Nature of the Hazard
* Vulnerability of the elements which are affected
* Economic value of those elements
* Predisposition of a community, structure, service, and/or geographic area to damage on account of their nature, construction and proximity to hazardous terrain or a disaster prone area” * Hazards: “Phenomena that pose a threat to people, structures, or economic assets and which may cause a disaster. * VULNERABILITY
* The extent to which a community, structure, service or geographic area is likely to be damaged or disrupted by the impact of particular disaster hazard…” * “Vulnerability is the propensity of things to be damaged by a hazard”. Disaster Preparedness
* It involves measures to ensure that communities and services are capable of coping with the effect of disaster. * EXAMPLE FOR DISASTERPREPAREDNESS
* Community awareness and education
* Proper warning system
* Mutual aid arrangement
* Mock drill, training practice
Prevention and Mitigation
It involves measures to eliminate or reduce the incidence of severity of disasters EXAMPLE FOR PREVENTIONAND MITIGATION
1. Preventing habitation in risk zones
2. Disaster resistant buildings
* Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping to include Resources. * Assess strengthening requirements and execute.
* Funding for preparedness must be arranged.
* Peoples’ cooperation through Political leaders, elders, Volunteers and NGOs * Create lead time by interpreting Warnings
* Plan to include movement of resources with time frame.
* Aim to reduce the destructive potential of cyclones, timely & appropriate relief to victims and quick & durable recovery ‘Disaster management can be defined as the organization and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters.1’ Types of disasters
There is no country that is immune from disaster, though vulnerability to disaster varies. There are four main types of disaster. Natural disasters. These disasters include floods, hurricanes, earthquakes and volcano eruptions that can have immediate impacts on human health, as well as secondary impacts causing further death and suffering from floods causing landslides, earthquakes resulting in fires, tsunamis causing widespread flooding and typhoons sinking ferries Environmental emergencies. These emergencies include technological or industrial accidents, usually involving hazardous material, and occur where these materials are produced, used or transported. Large forest fires are generally included in this definition because they tend to be caused by humans. Complex emergencies. These emergencies involve a break-down of authority, looting and attacks on strategic installations. Complex emergencies include conflict situations and war. Pandemic emergencies. These emergencies involve a sudden onset of a contagious disease that affects health but also disrupts services and businesses, bringing economic and social costs. Any disaster can interrupt essential services, such as the provision of health care, electricity, water, sewage/garbage removal, transportation and communications. The interruption can seriously affect the health, social and economic networks of local communities and countries. Disasters have a major and long-lasting impact on people long after the immediate effect has been mitigated. Poorly planned relief activities can have a significant negative impact not only on the disaster victims but also on donors and relief agencies. So it is important that physical therapists join established programmes rather than attempting individual efforts. Local, regional, national and (where...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document