Different Types of Theories in Intelligence
There are different types of theories for intelligence. “Intelligence is the underlying ability to understand the world and cope with it challenges” (Rathus, 2008-2009 pg. 174 para 7). Spearman, Gardner, Sternberg, and Salovey/Mayer explains these different types of theories. Some intelligence is a natural type of common knowledge. “Charles Spearman (1904) suggested that the behaviors we consider intelligent have a common underlying factor that he labeled for general intelligence and specific intelligence. He labored the two types of intelligence, “g” for general intelligence and “s” for specific intelligence” (Rathus, 2008-2009 pg. 175 para 2). A person that has general intelligence has no talents but can get by just fine. A person that has specific intelligence has excelled talents in music, poetry, or in business etc.… I consider myself as general intelligence because I don’t have special talents or skills. “Howard Gardner (1983/1993) suggested that there are a number of intelligences, not just one” (Rathus, 2008-2009pg. 175 para 5). There are two main intelligence that Gardner pointed out, naturalist intelligence and existential intelligence. According to Gardner (2001), naturalist intelligence refers to the ability to look at natural events such as kinds of animals, plants or the stars above. Good examples of this kind of intelligence were the Native Americans before Europeans settled in. They had a common knowledge of nature. Most of their intelligence and education had no written language but instead they learned their intelligence by nature. “Existential intelligence means dealing with the larger philosophical issues of life” (Garner 2001). This kind of intelligence focuses more on mathematical theories. Good examples of this are the Egyptians that built the Pyramids. Robert Sternberg (2000; Sternberg et al.; 2003) constructed a three-pronged theory of intelligence....
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