BY ABUBAKAR SALIHU MADA
KADUNA POLYTECHNIC, KADUNA
Dyslexia is a learning disability that manifest itself as a difficulty with the visual notation of speech or written language, particularly with reading, while dyscalculia is a learning difficulty in which a person has unusual difficulty in solving mathematical problems and grasping mathematical concepts, memory of maths facts, concept of time, money e.t.c. In the Nigerian context, many teachers are ignorant of these learning problems. The aim of this paper is to help teachers at various levels of educational sectors to identify students with dyslexia and dyscalculia and design some strategies that could be used in the classroom to assist students to overcome such problems. Introduction
Learning disability is a general term for a diverse of disorders characterized by significant difficulty in the acquisition of knowledge such as listening skills, speaking, reading and writing reasoning and mathematical computation. Other learning disabilities include: visual motor integration, motor planning, dysgraphia, attention deficit disorder, retrieval, short term memory, auditory perception, auditory memory, auditory discrimination, figure ground (visual or auditory), auditory sequencing, inter-sensory, dyslomia, depth perception etc. Yusha’u, (2006). However, with seemingly increasing problems associated with learning, it has become imperative that much attention be given to issues regarding learning difficulties with the objective of identifying and resolving them so that children can learn with relative ease. It is important to stress that difficulties may occur in children who are not yet of school age but they cannot be detected or diagnosed for possible remediation until the children are attending school. What effect does it have?
Specific learning difficulties can make lessons, challenging for a child. They may struggle to keeping up with classmates, and may come to see themselves as stupid, or not good. They may find it difficult to concentrate on lesson and because they may not be able to follow them properly, they may complain of lesson being “boring”. The child may search for other ways to pass the time and succeed.
They may try to avoid doing school work because they find it impossible to do it well. Doing badly in school can undermine their self confidence. This can make it hard to keep friends. Children with specific learning difficulties often become angry and frustrated, so behavioral problems are common. If they don’t get suitable help, the problem may get worst. Older children may become frustrated, fail exams or get into serious trouble, both at school and outside.
A specific learning difficulty is not a mental illness. However, children with specific learning difficulty are more likely than other children to develop mental health problem, for example anxiety, or have additional developmental disorder, such as Autism spectrum disorder and attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). DIAGNOSIS:
Diagnosis is the process of identifying problems encountered by students in learning; it is also Identifying of difficulties encountered by students and use of the information to develop remedial procedures to overcome those difficulties. Likewise diagnosis is seen as the assessment of students in order to establish possible cognitive, emotional, health perceptual, social and other factors that might be impacting on their achievements and school adjustment, such diagnosis can also be sought where dyslexia and dyscalculia learning difficulties, learning disorder or reading disability etc. are suspected. Wikipedia, (2012). . Teachers have always focused on assessment of students learning carefully assessing what student have learned through class work, chapter test, weekly test, monthly test, end of term test,...