Development and Environment Nexus

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INFLUENCE OF POVERTY AND DEVELOPMENT ON ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION

BY:
KABERA HENRY MACHARIA
EM12/2880/11

AN ASSIGNMENT SUBMITTED TO:
DR S.M. MAKINDI
ENSCI. 701- ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

EGERTON UNIVERSITY

AUGUST 2011

Table of contents.

Table of contents.ii

Table of figures.iii

List of abbreviations.iv

QUESTION ONE.1

Introduction1

Industrialization.2

1.1 The Effect of Industrial Pollution2

1.1.1 Global Warming2

1.1.2 Air Pollution.4

1.1.3 Water Pollution[pic]7

1.1.4 Soil Pollution7

2. Agricultural development.7

Conclusion10

Recommendations11

QUESTION TWO12

1.0.Introduction12

Developmental demands on poor nations.13

1.2 Population and environmental degradation.15

1.3 High inequality in provision of social services.16

a). Energy.16

b). Water and sanitation.17

1.4 Problems of Policies18

1.5 Impact of poverty on resource management.20

1.6 The Poor’s constraints to manage risks.20

Table of figures.

Figure 1 Effects of global warming4

Figure 2. A poor farmer struggling to produce on already mineral exhausted soil.8

Figure 3. A highly polluted river in a deforested area9

Figure 4. Balancing social, economic and environmental needs to acquire sustainability in development.11

Figure 5 Energy sources in Africa by source in the year 2009 (world fact book, 2010)17

Figure 6. Relationship between sustainability and equity in allocation of resources18

Figure 7. Linkages between poverty and environmental problems.21

List of abbreviations.

DfID Department of International Development.

EPA Environmental Protection Agency

EU European Union

HDI Human Development Index

IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development.

IMF International Monetary Fund

IPCC United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

LDCs Least Developed Countries

MIC Methyl isocyanate

NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NEMA National Environmental Management Agency

OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

SAPs Structural Adjustment programmes

U.K United Kingdom

U.S.A United States of America

UNDP United Nations Development Programme

USSR United Soviet States Republic

QUESTION ONE.

The Earth is one but the world is not. Discuss how the process of development erodes the environment as it strives to make the earth a safer and sounder home for everyone.

Introduction.

Human development is the expansion of people’s freedoms and capabilities to lead lives that they value and have reason to value. It is about expanding choices. Human development is based on the environment from where resources are drawn to drive developments.

Human being is not only dependent on the physical environment for livelihood, but also in a number of ways through which they are capable of controlling and influencing the physical environment in the efforts of making the earth more habitable. However, in the quest to improve their standard of living and to fulfill their ever-increasing diversified and sophisticated needs, human use of the physical environment is often excessive and uncontrolled. (Brocklesby, Mary Ann and Emily Hinshelwood, 2001)

Environmental degradation is often mentioned as the consequence of human development. As such, in the process of economic and infrastructural development, more often than not environment has not been given its deserved consideration this leads to environmental degradation.

Most people today live longer, are more educated and have more access to goods and services than ever before. Even in economically distressed countries, people’s health and education have improved greatly. Progress has extended to...
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