Developing Hypothesis

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Shalini Prasad Ajith Rao Eeshoo Rehani

DEVELOPING HYPOTHESES & RESEARCH QUESTIONS

500 RESEARCH METHODS
SEPTEMBER 18TH 2001

DEVELOPING HYPOTHESIS AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS

DEVELOPING HYPOTHESES & RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Introduction Processes involved before formulating the hypotheses. Definition Nature of Hypothesis Types How to formulate a Hypotheses in Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Testing and Errors in Hypotheses Summary

DEVELOPING HYPOTHESES & RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The research structure helps us create research that is :

Quantifiable Verifiable Replicable Defensible
Corollaries among the model, common sense & paper format Model Research Question Develop a Theory Identify Variables (if applicable) Identify hypotheses Test the hypotheses Evaluate the Results Critical Review

Common Sense
Why Your Answer How Expectations Collect/Analyze data What it Means What it doesn’t Mean

Paper Format
Intro Intro Method Method Results Conclusion Conclusion

DEVELOPING HYPOTHESES & RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Most research projects share the same general structure, which could be represented in the shape of an hourglass. The “Hourglass” notion of research BEGIN WITH BROAD QUESTIONS NARROW DOWN, FOCUS IN OPERATIONALIZE OBSERVE ANALYZE DATA REACH CONCLUSIONS GENERALIZE BACK TO QUESTIONS

DEVELOPING HYPOTHESES & RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Some of the methods that are included for research formulation are Where does the problem origination or discovery begin? Previous Experience Triggered Interest Potential problem fields

Criteria of problems and problem statement Goals & Planning Search, Explore & Gather the Evidence Generate creative and logical alternative solutions

Making the educated guess- the hypothesis!

DEVELOPING HYPOTHESES & RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Definitions of hypothesis
“Hypotheses are single tentative guesses, good hunches – assumed for use in devising theory or planning experiments intended to be given a direct experimental test when possible”. (Eric Rogers, 1966) “A hypothesis is a conjectural statement of the relation between two or more variables”. (Kerlinger, 1956) “Hypothesis is a formal statement that presents the expected relationship between an independent and dependent variable.”(Creswell, 1994) “A research question is essentially a hypothesis asked in the form of a question.”

DEVELOPING HYPOTHESES & RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Definitions of hypothesis
“It is a tentative prediction about the nature of the relationship between two or more variables.” “A hypothesis can be defined as a tentative explanation of the research problem, a possible outcome of the research, or an educated guess about the research outcome.” (Sarantakos, 1993: 1991) “Hypotheses are always in declarative sentence form, an they relate, either generally or specifically , variables to variables.” “An hypothesis is a statement or explanation that is suggested by knowledge or observation but has not, yet, been proved or disproved.” (Macleod Clark J and Hockey L 1981)

DEVELOPING HYPOTHESES & RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Nature of Hypothesis
The hypothesis is a clear statement of what is intended to be investigated. It should be specified before research is conducted and openly stated in reporting the results. This allows to:

Identify the research objectives Identify the key abstract concepts involved in the research Identify its relationship to both the problem statement and the literature review

A problem cannot be scientifically solved unless it is reduced to hypothesis form It is a powerful tool of advancement of knowledge, consistent with existing knowledge and conducive to further enquiry

DEVELOPING HYPOTHESES & RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Nature of Hypothesis

It can be tested – verifiable or falsifiable Hypotheses are not moral or ethical questions It is neither too specific nor to general It is a prediction of consequences It is considered valuable even if proven false

DEVELOPING HYPOTHESES &...
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