Architecture of Intel Machines
Ravneet Kaur M.Sc (cs), M.Tech(CSE)
This paper explains the architecture development and challenges of multi-core processing, plus provides a glimpse into the upcoming Intel quad-core processors and the direction in which Intel is taking multi-core processors to the future. We discuss many of the benefits you will see as we continue to increase processor performance, energy efficiency, and capabilities. Multi-core processor capability is central to the Intel platform-centric approach. By enabling enhanced performance, reduced power consumption and more efﬁcient simultaneous processing of multiple tasks, multi-core processors promise to improve the user experience in home and business environments. Key words- multi core, architecture, wide dynamic execution, smart cache, smart memory access.
One constant in computing is that the world’s hunger for faster performance is never satisfied. Every new performance advance in processors leads to another level of greater performance demands from businesses and consumers. Today these performance demands are not just for speed, but also for smaller, more powerful mobile devices, longer battery life, quieter desktop PCs, and—in the enterprise—better price/performance per watt and lower cooling costs. People want improvements in productivity, security, multitasking, data protection, game performance, and many other capabilities. There’s also a growing demand for more convenient form factors for the home, office, data center, and on the go. Through advances in silicon technology, microarchitecture, software, and platform technologies, Intel is on a fast-paced trajectory to continuously deliver new generations of multi-core processors with the superior performance and energy-efficiency necessary to meet these demands for years to come. A new cadence1 in the microarchitecture arena combined with Intel’s ability to continue to extend Moore’s Law, will enable Intel to bring new levels of performance, power savings, and computing capabilities year after year. In mid-2006, we reached new levels of energy-efficient performance with our Intel® Core™2 Duo processors and Dual-Core Intel® Xeon® processor 5100 series, both produced with our latest 65-nanometer (nm) silicon technology and microarchitecture (Intel® Core™ microarchitecture). Now we’re ready to top that with the world’s first mainstream quad-core processors for both desktop and mainstream servers—Intel® Core™2 Quad processors, Intel® Core™2 Extreme quad-core processors, and others.
2. MULTICORE 
A multi-core processor is a single component with two or more independent actual processors .Manufacturers typically integrates the cores onto a single integrated circuit die, or onto multiple dies in a single chip package.
A dual-core processor has two cores (e.g. AMD Phenom II X2, Intel Core Duo), a quad-core processor contains four cores (e.g. AMD Phenom II X4, the Intel 2010
Core line that includes 3 levels of quad core processors), and a hexa-core processor contains six cores (e.g. AMD Phenom II X6, Intel Core i7 Extreme Edition 980X). A multi-core processor implements multiprocessing in a single physical package. Designers may couple cores in a multi-core device tightly or loosely. For example, cores may or may not share caches, and they may implement message passing or shared memory inter-core communication methods. Common network topologies to interconnect cores include bus, ring, 2-dimensional mesh, and crossbar.
Homogeneous multi-core systems include only identical cores; heterogeneous multi-core systems have cores which are not identical. Just as with single-processor systems, cores in multi-core systems may implement architectures such as superscalar, VLIW, vector processing, SIMD, or multithreading.
3. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTICORE 
While manufacturing technology improves, reducing the size of...