Design of Production Systems

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Design of Production Systems
W H AT D O E S P R O D U C T A N D S E R V I C E D E S I G N D O ? 1. Translate customer wants and needs into product and service requirements. (marketing) 2. Refine existing products and services. (marketing)

3. Develop new products and/or services. (marketing, operations) 4. Formulate quality goals. (quality assurance, operations)
5. Formulate cost target. (accounting)
6. Construct and test prototypes. (marketing, operations)
7. Document specifications.

R E A S O N S F O R P R O D U C T O R S E R V I C E D E S I G N or R E D E S I G N to be competitive by offering new products or services
to make the business grow and increase profits.
the best organizations try to develop new products or services as an alternative to downsizing. Redesign occurs for a number of reasons such as customer complaints, accidents or injuries, excessive warranty claims, or low demand

O B J E C T I V E S O F P R O D U C T A N D S E R V I C E D E S I G N both is to satisfy the customer while making a reasonable profit. Achieve best quality
the capabilities of the organization to produce or deliver a given product or service it is important to involve service people in the design process to reduce the risk of achieving a design that looks good on paper, but doesn’t work in the real world.

R E S E A R C H A N D D E V E L O P M E N T

Research and development (R&D) refers to organized efforts that are directed toward increasing scientific knowledge and product or process innovation. R E S E A R C H A N D D E V E L O P M E N T

Basic research
has the objective of advancing the state of knowledge about a subject , without any near-term expectation of commercial applications. Applied research
has the objective of achieving commercial applications.
Development
converts the results of applied research into useful commercial applications Applied research

R E S E A R C H A N D D E V E L O P M E N T
The benefits of successful R&D can be tremendous.
Some research leads to patents, with the potential of licensing and royalties However, many discoveries are not patentable, or companies don’t wish to divulge details of their ideas so they avoid the patent route.

Environmental Issues
Bans on cyclamates, red food dye, phosphates, and asbestos have sent designers scurrying back to their drawing boards to find alternative designs that were acceptable to both government regulators and customers. Automotive- automobile pollution standards and safety features, such as seat belts, air bags, safety glass, and energy absorbing bumpers and frames, have had a substantial impact on automotive design.   Environmental Issues

Toy design- to remove sharp edges, small pieces that can cause choking, and toxic materials Construction- government regulations require the use of lead-free paint, safety glass in entranceways, access to public buildings for handicapped persons, and standards for insulation, electrical wiring, and plumbing Legal

Product liability
means that a manufacturer is liable for any injuries or damages caused by a faulty product because of poor workmanship or design. Manufacturers also are faced with the implied warranties created by state laws under the Uniform Commercial Code, which says that products carry an implication of merchantability and fitness; that is, a product must be usable for its intended purposes. Legal

The suits and potential suits have led to increased legal and insurance costs, expensive settlements with injured parties, and costly recalls. Moreover, increasing customer awareness of product safety can adversely affect product image and subsequent demand for a product. Thus, it is extremely important to design products that are reasonably free of hazards. When hazards do exist, it is necessary to install safety guards or other devices for reducing accident potential, and to provide adequate warning notices of...
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