Prevalence of Depression and Anxiety amongst College Students
Presented in partial fulfillment for
Florida Gulf Coast University
College of Health Professions
Prevalence of Depression and Anxiety amongst College Students College represents a form of higher learning. For many, it is also a time for personal growth as we transition into adulthood. This in itself is a stressful situation as one must make drastic adjustments to a new role, environment, and demands. Stress is a major contributor to the development of mental and emotional issues (Rodgers, L., Tennison, L. 2009). Research has been done to determine the impact of depression and anxiety on university students. It has been hypothesized that the effectiveness of a students’ adaptation to stress is critical to their performance in school and social wellbeing. Within the college campus, the most common psychological issues include depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and bipolar disorders; three of which have strong ties to stress (James Michael Nolan, Stephanie J.W. Ford, Victoria E. Kress, Renee I. Anderson, Theresa C. Novak. 2005). For college students, stress can arise from various sources; increased course workload, establishing new social circles, and being away from family for the first time If students are not able to properly deal with stressors, emotional manifestations of nervousness, loneliness, and a lack of sleep can occur and may even progress to more serious issues such as depression and anxiety. (Rodgers, L., Tennison, L. (2009). Methods
A search was conducted using the online databases provided for Florida Gulf Coast University. Databases that were used to retrieve the articles for this literature review included ProQuest Health and Medical, CINAHL, Sciencedirect, and GaleNet with articles from 2000-2009. Keywords used in the search included “depression”, “anxiety”, and “university student”. In addition, other terms like “stressors”, “health”, “mental”, and “psychological” we used in conjunction. Traditional versus nontraditional college students, adjustment to schools of higher education, and prevention of stress were major themes found in these articles. Ten papers were included in this review. The article by Burris, J., Brechting, E., Salsman, J., & Carlson, C. (2009) focuses on the emotional impact of depression and anxiety on academic performance. Three studies discussed the adjustment from high school to college: Hicks, T., & Heastie, S. (2008), Shankland, R., Genolini, C., Riou França, L., Guelfi, J., & Ionescu, S. (2010) and Rodgers, L., Tennison, L. (2009). Psychological and behavioral management was discussed in three articles: Russell, G., & Shaw, S. (2009), James Michael Nolan, Stephanie J.W. Ford, Victoria E. Kress, Renee I. Anderson, Theresa C. Novak. (2005), and Werch C.E.(C.), Bian H., Moore M.J., Ames S., DiClemente C.C., Weiler R.M. (2007). Two articles discussed factors in the development of anxiety and depression: Burris, J., Brechting, E., Salsman, J., & Carlson, C. (2009), and Engin, E., Gurkan, A., Dulgerler, S. & Arabacil, L.(2009). Social anxiety in relation to stress was addressed in Wowra, S. (2007). Adjustment
While both Hicks, T., & Heastie, S. (2008) and Shankland, R., Genolini, C., Riou França, L., Guelfi, J., & Ionescu, S. (2010) addressed the transition to college and factors leading to psychological health issues, Rodgers, L., Tennison, L. (2009) tackled on the topic of adjustment disorder and how it affected students. In Hicks & Heastie’s article, specific physical and mental health issues that affected the transition from high school to college was identified. The purpose of this study was to determine vulnerabilities in first year college students and how they cope with physiological health issues. Two types of students were studied in this article: traditional college students and nontraditional students....