Deixis

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DEIXIS
(Pragmatics - S. C. Levinson)

Deictic elements scope to locate what is being referred to in time, space etc. Traditional categories of deixis are: person, time and place

Person deixis concerns the encoding of the role of participants in the speech event. According to grammatical categories of person we distinguish: first person is the grammaticalization of the speaker’s reference to himself second person is the encoding of the speaker’s reference to one or more addressees third person is the encoding of reference to persons and entities which are neither speakers nor addressees of the utterance in question Often expressed by: pronouns and their associated predicate agreements Participant-roles independent on grammatical. categories distinguish: speaker/spokesman vs. source of the utterance

recipient vs. target
hearers/bystanders vs. addressees/target
Distinction is made between overhearers/unratified participants (non-addressed participants) and ratified participants (addressees)

Time deixis concerns the encoding of temporal points and spans relative to the time at which an utterance was spoken (or a written message inscribed). This time is called coding time, CT and should not be mistaken for receiving time, RT (moment of reception). Sometimes CT and RT can by assumed to be identical, this is called deictic simultaneity. Commonly grammaticalized in deictic adverbs of time and in tense. Units such as cycles of day and night, lunar months, seasons and years can be used either as measures relative to some fixed pint of interest (deictic centre) or calendrically to locate events in absolute time relative to some absolute origo (B.C.,...) Category of tense:

metalinguistic tense, M-tense - deictic interpretation of tense in respect to CT language´s tense, L-tense - verbal inflection used in traditional grammar

Place deixis concerns the encoding of spatial locations relative to the location of the participants in the speech envent....
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