Dcn Notes

Topics: Computer network, Modulation, Network topology Pages: 10 (2702 words) Published: February 14, 2013
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IntroductionThe term “computer network’’ means a collection of autonomous computers interconnected by a single technology. Two computers are said to be interconnected if they are able to exchange information. The connection need not be via a copper wire; fiber optics, microwaves, infrared, and communication satellites can also be used. Networks come in many sizes, shapes and forms. Uses of Computer Networks 1. Business Applications 2. Home Applications 3. Mobile Users 4. Social Issues Example NetworksThere are different kinds of networks, large and small, well known and less well known. They have different goals, scales, and technologies.The InternetThe Internet is not a network at all, but a vast collection of different networks that use certain common protocols and provide certain common services.The ARPANETThe story begins in the late 1950s. At the height of the Cold War, the DoD wanted a command-and-control network that could survive a nuclear war. At that time, all military communications used the public telephone network, which was considered vulnerable. NSFNETBy the late 1970s, NSF (the U.S. National Science Foundation) saw the enormous impact the ARPANET was having on university research, allowing scientists across the country to share data and collaborate on research projects. However, to get on the ARPANET, a university had to have a research contract with the DoD, which many did not have.Internet UsageTraditionally (meaning 1970 to about 1990), the Internet and its predecessors had four main applications: 1. E-mail. 2. News. 3. Remote login. 4. File transfer. | |

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Group| #| Layer Name| Key Responsibilities| Data Type Handled| Scope| Lower Layers| 1| Physical| Encoding and Signaling; Physical Data Transmission; Hardware Specifications; Topology and Design| Bits| Electrical or light signals sent between local devices| | 2| Data Link| Logical Link Control; Media Access Control; Data Framing; Addressing; Error Detection and Handling; Defining Requirements of Physical Layer| Frames| Low-level data messages between local devices| | 3| Network| Logical Addressing; Routing; Datagram Encapsulation; Fragmentation and Reassembly; Error Handling and Diagnostics| Datagrams / Packets| Messages between local or remote devices| | 4| Transport| Process-Level Addressing; Multiplexing/Demultiplexing; Connections; Segmentation and Reassembly; Acknowledgments and Retransmissions;

Flow Control| Datagrams / Segments| Communication between software processes| Upper Layers| 5| Session| Session Establishment, Management and Termination| Sessions| Sessions between local or remote devices| | 6| Presentation| Data Translation; Compression and Encryption| Encoded User Data| Application data representations| | 7| Application| User Application Services| User Data| Application data|

OSI & TCP/IP Models

TCP/IP Model

Topology refers to the way in which the network of computers is connected. 1. Bus Topology
In Bus Topology, all stations attach through appropriate hardware interfacing known as a tap, 2. Ring Topology
In a ring network, every device has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction (either "clockwise" or "counterclockwise"). A failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and can take down the entire network. 3. Star Topology

A star network features a central connection point called a "hub" that may be a hub, switch or router. Devices typically connect to the hub with Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ethernet. 4. Tree Topology

Tree topologies integrate multiple star topologies together onto a bus. In its simplest form, only hub devices connect directly to the tree bus, and each hub functions as the "root" of a tree of devices. 5. Mesh Topology

Mesh topologies involve...
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