Humanities Course Paper

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December 3, 2012
Introduction to the Humanities

Introduction

Through the past several decades the advancement of technology has evolved. Among one of the advancements was the Internet. The Internet is a worldwide of networks connecting millions of computers. Through the Internet countries are able to exchange data, news and opinions. It started in the 1960’s when the internet was originally being used for government which later evolved to the world (Computer history museum, 2006). Over the past forty years the internet has changed technology of computers and how the world communicates, online banking, social networking, and online shopping. The Internet we know today grew from seeds planted by the U.S. Government. The Department of Defense issued a twenty thousand dollar contract on December 6, 1967 for the purpose of studying the design and specification of a computer network (Internet History from ARPANET to Broadband, 2007). It was conceived by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the U.S. government in 1969 and was first known as the ARPANet (Computer history museum, 2006). The ARPA laid the groundwork which later became the internet. By 1992 the Internet has one million hosts (Ganna, 2006). Through the years the Internet has changed the way people live and run businesses. My project will walk through the discovery and evolution of the Internet. History of the Internet

The history of the Internet is extensive. Over the years the internet has went from government officials to the whole world using the internet. There is an estimation of 2.1 billion people using the internet worldwide. The following timeline walks through the discovery and evolution of the internet. -1962: This Internet Timeline begins in 1962, before the word ‘Internet’ is invented. The world’s 10,000 computers are primitive, although they cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. They have only a few thousand words of magnetic core memory, and programming them is far from easy (Computer History Museum, 2006). This was in the beginning stages of the internet. It was mainly being used for the government at this stage. -1967: Larry Roberts holds a conference in Michigan to bring the ARPA (Advanced Researchers Project Agency) researchers together. At the conclusion, researcher Wesley Clark suggests that the network be managed by ‘Interface Message Processors’ in front of the major computers. Called IMPs, they evolve into today’s routers. Roberts puts together his plan for the ARPANET. The proposed line speed in ARPANET is increased from 2.4 Kbps to 50 Kbps (Computer History Museum, 2006). The ARPANET was given a contract from the Department of Defense and they conducted a four month study which evolved the Internet around this area. -1969: Researcher Frank Heart puts a team together to write the software that will run the IMPs and to specify changes in the Honeywell DDP- 516 they have chosen. Four university sites are selected to work on producing the software to enable its computers and the IMP to communicate (Computer History Museum, 2006). The internet evolved from this study. -1972: Nodes are added to the ARPANET at the rate of one per month. The ARPANET grows by ten more nodes in the first 10 months of 1972. The year is spent finishing, testing and releasing all the network protocols, and developing network demonstrations (Computer History Museum, 2006). The research team used universities to come up with a power team of ideas. -1978: The ARPANET experiment formally is complete. This leaves an array of boards and task forces over the next few years trying to sustain the vision of a free and open Internet that can keep up with the growth of computing (Computer History Museum, 2006). -1984: The newly developed DNS is introduced across the Internet, with the now familiar domains of .gov, .mil, .edu, .org, .net, and .com. Most important for the Internet, NSF issues a request for proposals to establish...
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