In English language, there are many fixed, identifiable, non-idiomatic phrases and construction. Such groups of words are called recurrent combinations, fixed combination or collocation. Collocation fall into two major groups: grammatical collocation and lexical collocation. For people who regard the English language as a foreign language or second language, it’s so difficult to express it as perfect. This “mini research paper” talks about “Cultural Effect on English Language Collocation as Foreign Language” to help them more understanding in how to mastering English. Keywords: Collocation, English as a second language, Cultural effects Introduction
Learners of English as a foreign or second language, like learners of any language, have traditionally devoted themselves to mastering words – their pronunciations, forms, and meanings. However, if they wish to acquire active mastery of English. That is, if they wish to be able to express themselves fluently and accurately in speech and writing, they must learn to cope with the combination of words into phrases, sentences and texts. Students must learn how words combine or ‘collocate’ with each other. In any language, certain words regularly combine with certain other words or grammatical constructions. Collocations are important to language learners. When learners use collocations, they will be better understood. Native speakers unconsciously predict what is going to be said based on the use of phrases. If a non-native speaker uses frequently-used patterns (collocations), it will be easier for native speakers to guess what the non-native speaker is saying and may help compensate for other language issues, such as pronunciation. When learners write and speak, if they use collocations central to their topic, their readers are more likely to understand their message. The importance of vocabulary acquisition has always been recognized, although, at times, vocabulary was treated as separate from grammar and skills. However, the communicative and natural approach emphasized the importance of vocabulary development. Vocabulary knowledge involves considerably more than just knowing the meanings of given words in isolation; it involves knowing the words that tend to co-occur with it. Hoey (2005) in Shokouhi (2010), for example, argues that non-native speakers behave differently with collocations than native speakers, in that the former group learns them in very restricted contexts. Compounding this problem is the fact that the frequency of particular combinations depends upon the genre in which each occurs. Grammatical and lexical collocations, like the accompaniments of nouns with other nouns, adjectives with nouns, verbs with other parts of speech, or many other such combinations, may all show different behaviour. Literature Review
Collocation is a tendency of words in a language to occur in close proximity to each other (based on logical and meaningful relationships between then, patterns of association and usage, etc). Collocation can be ascertained by experience, reading, and study of dictionaries that give multiple examples in the form of quotations, such as the Oxford English Dictionary) Chandler (1998). Students must learn how words combine or ‘collocate’ with each other. In any language, certain words regularly combine with certain other words or grammatical constructions. These recurrent, semi-fixed combinations or collocations can be divided into group (BBI dictionary): 1.
Grammatical collocation is a phrase consisting of a dominant word (noun, adjective, verb) and preposition or grammatical structure such as an infinitive or clause. Example : account for, advantage over, adjacent to, by accident, to be afraid that. 2.
Lexical collocations consist of various combinations of nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs. Lexical collocations, in contrast to grammatical collocations, do not contain...
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