Critical Thinking

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In our lives, there must be a time where we may face problems. Problems will occur if we do not have the right strategy or solution. So, how are we going to solve it? Well, there are no specific solutions that I can explain here but there are some ways that can help us to create the correct and fast solution to solve our problems. One of the ways is to think critically.

Thinking is a good process but thinking alone will not help us to develop our minds. That is when critical thinking may take place. Critical thinking is the ability to think clearly and rationally. It includes the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking. Using critical thinking one makes a decision or solves the problem of judging what to believe or what to do. It helps us to build our confidence in making decisions. The intellectual values such as accuracy, good reasons, depth, breadth, consistency, precision and fairness also characterize critical thinking. It means that a critical thinker also shows good internal values besides thinking outside the box only.

Critical thinking is used by almost everyone. Many great and famous philosophers including Al-Kindi, Avicenna and Ibn Rushd even apply critical thinking in their lives. They have used it to help them in their methods, works and ideas. In this assignment we will know more about the background of these people and how they use it . We will also see on how critical thinking has changed from time to time. There are new theories about critical thinking and what are the developments and initiatives that had been done with it.

1.0 Islamic Contributions in Critical Thinking
Critical thinking plays a vital part in Islamic Philosophy. They have used it and make discussions among them to form a new idea that is related to Islam. Here we can also see how these philosophers use their thinking in their philosophies.

1. Al- Kindi
Al-Kindi was the first Islamic philosopher. He lived in Iraq and studied in Baghdad,.Al-Kindi's wide-ranging intellectual interests included not only philosophy but also music, astronomy, mathematics, and medicine. He had developed original theories on key issues in the philosophy of religion, metaphysics, physical science, and ethics. He is especially known for his arguments against the world's eternity, and his innovative use of Greek ideas to explore the idea of God's unity and transcendence.

Al- Kindi became a prominent figure in the House of Wisdom, and a number of Abbasid Caliphs appointed him to oversee the translation of Greek scientific and philosophical texts into the Arabics language. This contact with "the philosophy of the ancients" (as Greek and Hellenistic philosophy was often referred to by Muslim scholars) had a profound effect on his intellectual development, and lead him to write a number of original treatises of his own on a range of subjects ranging from metaphysic and ethics to mathematics and pharmacology.

He has produced 270 works but most of them are lost. He writes ranging from logic through medicine and science to theology. Some of his works also had been translated into Latin and since then, he was known through these Latin translations. He also had studied and revised the Arabic versions of works by Plotinus and Prochus.

Al-Kindi philosophies have become part in Islamic culture. He has known as the Arabic philosopher. He translates many texts of what was to become standard Arabic philosophical vocabulary originated with al-Kindi. Indeed. If it was not for him, the work of philosophers like Al-Farabi, Avicenna and al-Ghazali might not have been possible.

On his life, Al-Kindi has contribute in astronomy and astrology a lot, al-Kindi took his view of the solar system from Ptolemy, who placed the Earth at the centre of a series of concentric spheres, in which the known heavenly bodies (the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and the stars) are embedded. In one of his treatises...
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